Bibliographies by course

This page contains the Bibliographies (sources) for all of the courses we offer. They are listed by course title.

Advanced Anatomical Language
Medical Terminology Demystified Dale Layman Publisher McGraw Hill Proefssional, 2005 ISBN 0071490523, 978007149052

Medical Terminology for Health Professions Authors Ann Ehrlich, Carol Schroeder Publisher Cengage Learning, 2012
ISBN 1111543275, 9781111543273

Mosby’s Medical Dictionary Author Mosby Publisher Elsevier Health Sciences, 2013 ISBN 0323112587, 9780323112581

Quick Medical Terminology: A Self-Teaching Guide Volume 197 of Wiley Self-Teaching Guides
Authors Shirley Soltesz Steiner, Natalie Pate Capps Publisher John Wiley & Sons, 2011 ISBN 1118063732, 9781118063736

Massage Therapy and Temporomandibular Joint Disorders
Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction: A Practitioner’s Guide
by Annika Isberg Publisher CRC Press, 2001 ISBN 1901865444, 9781901865448

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. Temporomandibular Joint and Muscle Disorders. Available at: www.nidcr.nih.gov/HealthInformation/DiseasesAnd Conditions/TMDTMJ. Accessed February 2, 2007.

DeBar LL, Vuckovic N, Schneider J, Ritenbaugh C. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for temporomandibular disorders. J Orofac Pain. 2003;17: 224-236.

Rintakoski, Katariina; Hublin, Christer; Lobbezoo, Frank; Rose, Richard J.; and Kaprio, Jaakko (2012). Genetic Factors Account for Half of the Phenotypic Variance in Liability to Sleep-Related Bruxism in Young Adults: A Nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort Study. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 15, pp. 714­–719. DOI: 10.1017/thg.2012.54

Changes in Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Symptoms Following Massage Therapy: A Case Report
Int J Ther Massage Bodywork. 2011; 4(4): 37–47.Published online Dec 31, 2011. PMCID: PMC3242647
Melissa Joan Pierson, MT

Clinical effectiveness of manual therapy for the management of musculoskeletal and non-musculoskeletal conditions: systematic review and update of UK evidence report
Christine Clar1, Alexander Tsertsvadze1, Rachel Court1, Gillian Lewando Hundt2, Aileen Clarke1 and Paul Sutcliffe1*
Corresponding author: Paul Sutcliffe p.a.sutcliffe@warwick.ac.uk

Massage Therapy and Fibromyalgia
Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage. Milady 4 edition (2007)

Werner, Ruth A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4 edition (2008)

Sleep disorders and fibromyalgia. Roizenblatt S, Neto NS, Tufik S. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Avenida Angélica 1996, Andar 1, São Paulo 01228-200, Brazil.

High prevalence of restless legs syndrome among patients with fibromyalgia: a controlled cross-sectional study. Viola-Saltzman M, Watson NF, Bogart A, Goldberg J, Buchwald D.
Department of Neurology, Loyola University Medical Center Maywood, IL, USA.

Is inflammation a mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent event in fibromyalgia? Cordero MD, Díaz-Parrado E, Carrión AM, Alfonsi S, Sánchez-Alcazar JA, Bullón P, Battino M, de Miguel M.Dpto. Citología e Histología Normal y Patológica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.

The prevalence of rheumatologic disorders in patients with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries.Mukerji B, Mukerji V, Alpert MA, Selukar R.University of South Alabama, Mobile, USA.

The prevalence of fibromyalgia and its relation with headache characteristics in episodic migraine. Küçük?en S, Genç E, Y?lmaz H, Sall? A, Gezer IA, Karahan AY, Salba? E, Cingöz HT, Nas O, U?urlu H. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Meram Medical School, Necmettin Erbakan University, Yunus Emre Mh, 42080, Konya, Turkey,

Is there a relationship between fibromyalgia and rhinitis?
Frieri M, Argyriou A. Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, New York, NY 11554, USA.

Methodological approach to depressive symptoms in fibromyalgia patients.
Veltri A, Scarpellini P, Piccinni A, Conversano C, Giacomelli C, Bombardieri S, Bazzichi L, Dell’Osso L. Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Pisa, Italy

The relation between vitamin D deficiency and fibromyalgia syndrome in women. Matthana MH. Clinical Research Center, Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Fibromyalgia dyscognition: concepts and issues. Ambrose KR, Gracely RH, Glass JM. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Functional impairment in chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. Lavergne MR, Cole DC, Kerr K, Marshall LM. Women’s College Hospital, Family and Community Medicine, Toronto, ON

Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?
Bennett RM, Goldenberg DL.

Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. Fraga BP, Santos EB, Farias Neto JP, Macieira JC, Quintans LJ Jr, Onofre AS, De Santana JM, Martins-Filho PR, Bonjardim LR. Health Science, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.

Objective Measures of Disordered Sleep in Fibromyalgia Ronald D. Chervin,1 Mihaela Teodorescu,2 Ramesh Kushwaha,1 Andrea M. Deline,3 Christine B. Brucksch,3 Christine Ribbens-Grimm,3 Deborah L. Ruzicka,1 Phyllis K. Stein,4 Daniel J. Clauw,3 and Leslie J. Crofford3,5

A new treatment modality for fibromyalgia syndrome: hyperbaric oxygen therapy.
Yildiz S, Kiralp MZ, Akin A, Keskin I, Ay H, Dursun H, Cimsit M. GATA Haydarpa?a Military Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life. Fiz J, Durán M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farré M.Human Pharmacology and Neurosciences Unit, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar-IMIM, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain

Association of herbal cannabis use with negative psychosocial parameters in patients with fibromyalgia. Ste-Marie PA, Fitzcharles MA, Gamsa A, Ware MA, Shir Y. McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Sex hormones and pain in regularly menstruating women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Okifuji A, Turk DC. Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Effectiveness of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at tender points as adjuvant therapy for patients with fibromyalgia. Carbonario F, Matsutani LA, Yuan SL, Marques AP. Department of Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms. Kalichman L. Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical stimulation effects on fibromyalgia. Sunshine, W., Field, T. Schanberg, S., Quintino, O., Kilmer, T., Fierro, K., Burman, I., Hashimoto, M., McBride, C., & Henteleff, T. (1996). Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 2, 18-22.

Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Cao H, Liu J, Lewith GT. Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Massage Therapy and Lupus
Human Anatomy’ 2007 Ed.2007 Edition By Saladin, Kenneth The Lymphatic System and Immunity pgs 629-653

Publisher Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 0071259716, 9780071259712

Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems By Lauralee Sherwood Publisher Cengage Learning, 2008
ISBN 0495391840, 9780495391845

Macrophages: A Practical ApproachmIssue 239 of Practical approach series, ISSN 0957-025X
Editor Donna M. Paulnock Publisher Oxford University Press, 2000 ISBN 0199636885, 9780199636884

Banchereau J, Steinman RM (March 1998). “Dendritic cells and the control of immunity”. Nature 392 (6673): 245–52. doi:10.1038/32588. PMID 9521319.

Nakanishi, Kenji (December 2010). “Basophils as APC in Th2 response in allergic inflammation and parasite infection”. Current Opinion in Immunology 22 (6): 814–820. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2010.10.018.

Nathan, C (Mar 2006). “Neutrophils and immunity: challenges and opportunities”. Nature Reviews Immunology 6 (March): 173–82. doi:10.1038/nri1785. ISSN 1474-1733. PMID 16498448.

Jiuyang Zhang, Yung Pin Chen, Kristen P. Miller, Mitra S. Ganewatta, Marpe Bam, Yi Yan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Alan W. Decho, Chuanbing Tang. Antimicrobial Metallopolymers and Their Bioconjugates with Conventional Antibiotics against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2014; 136 (13): 4873 DOI: 10.1021/ja5011338

“The Lymphatic System”. Human Anatomy (Gray’s Anatomy).

Pascall, C R; Stearn, E J; Mosley, J G (1980-07-05), “Short Reports”, British Medical Journal: 26, PMC 1713722, PMID 7407483, “Unlike S hadar peritonitis, S typhi peritonitis is due to perforation of Peyer’s patches.”

Mebius, RE; Kraal, G (2005). “Structure and function of the spleen”. Nature reviews. Immunology 5 (8): 606–16. doi:10.1038/nri1669. PMID 16056254.

Milady’s Guide to Lymph Drainage Massage Author Ramona Moody French Publisher Cengage Learning, 2003 ISBN 1401824722, 9781401824723
http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/infections/biology_of_infectious_disease/defenses_against_infection.html

Jones J, Bannister BA, Gillespie SH, ed. (2006). Infection: Microbiology and Management. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 435. ISBN 1-4051-2665-5.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

“How Lupus Affects the Body: Nervous System.” Lupus Foundation of America. 1 July 2009.

http://www.lupus.org/webmodules/webarticlesnet/templates/new_aboutaffects.aspx?articleid=102&zoneid=17

Autonomic nervous dysfunction in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA): possible pathogenic role of autoantibodies to autonomic nervous structures http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1904812/

Raynaud’s phenomenon in systemic lupus erythematosus.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7655867

Ocular Manifestations of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: A Review of the Literature http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ad/2012/290898/

Adverse drug reactions as cause of admission to hospital: prospective analysis of 18 820 patients
http://www.bmj.com/content/329/7456/15.full

J. Stahlman et al., “Serum Testosterone Levels in Non-Dosed Females after Secondary Exposure to 1.62% Testosterone Gel: Effects of Clothing Barrier on Testosterone Absorption,” Current Medical Research & Opinion 28, no. 2 (2012): 291–301.

Pulse steroid therapy.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19023530

Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1142199/#

http://www.sasionline.com/ems001.html Aromatherapy Course

http://www.sasionline.com/aps003.html Fibromyalgia Course.

Massage Therapy and Sciatica

Nervous System Adina Michael-Titus, Patricia Revest, Peter Shortland Publisher Churchill Livingstone, 2007 ISBN 0443071799, 9780443071799

Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems By Lauralee Sherwood Publisher Cengage Learning, 2008 ISBN 0495391840, 9780495391845

Hippocrates (400 BCE). On the Sacred Disease. Francis Adams.

The Mind and the Brain By Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Sharon Begley Publisher HarperCollins, 2009 ISBN 0061961981, 9780061961984

Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. pp. 132–144. ISBN 0-13-981176-1.

Carlson, Neil. Physiology of Behavior. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 9780205239399.

Susan Standring, Neil R. Borley [et al.] (2008). “Overview of cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei”. Gray’s anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice (40th ed.). [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06684-9.

“Spinal Nerves”. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 12 April 2014.

Microscopic Morphology and Histology of the Human Meninges¨. Mar2005. p22-34.

Hall, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. (2005). Textbook of medical physiology (11th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-0240-0.

John Krantz. Experiencing Sensation and Perception. “Chapter 1: What is Sensation and Perception?” pp. 1.6 Retrieved May 16, 2013.

Atlas of the Sensory Organs: Functional and Clinical Anatomy Publisher Springer Science & Business Media, 2007 ISBN 1592598498, 9781592598496

Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems By Lauralee Sherwood Publisher Cengage Learning, 2008 ISBN 0495391840, 9780495391845

Principles of Medical Physiology Sabyasachi Sircar Publisher Thieme, 2008 ISBN 1588905721, 9781588905727

Neuroscience Volume 2 of Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain Editors Mark F. Bear, Barry W. Connors, Michael A.
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007 ISBN 0781760038, 9780781760034

Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology Biological and medical physics, biomedical engineering
Biological physics series Russell K. Hobbie, Bradley J. Roth Publisher Springer Science & Business Media, 2007
ISBN 0387498850, 9780387498850

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Werner, Ruth A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4 edition (2008)

Carol Ardman, Loren Fishma Sciatica Solutions: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Cure of Spinal and Piriformis Problems W.W. Norton & Co.; (2007)

Chet Cunningham &, Dr. Mary Ann Castor The Sciatica Relief Handbook
United Research Publishers (June 1997)

Patrick, C.A.J. Vroomen, Marc C.T.F.M. de Krom, Jan T. Wilmink, D.M. Arnold, J. Kester, and Andre Knottnerus. “Lack of Effectiveness of Bed Rest for Sciatica.” N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 418- 423.

Pathology of the Integumentary System

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Werner, Ruth A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4 edition (2008)

Virendra N Govind Srivastava M.D. Sehgal Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Skin Diseases Anshan Pub; 2 edition June 30, 2005

de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H (Jun 2004). “Classification of papillomaviruses”. Virology 324

Brownell I, Pomeranz M, Ma L (2005). “Eumycetoma”

Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.

Habif, Thomas P. (2009). Clinical dermatology (5th ed. ed.). Edinburgh: Mosby. ISBN 978-0-7234-3541-9.

Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). Page 685. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.

Acne Conglobata http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1072716-overview

Acne Conglobata Treatment & Management http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1072716-treatment

Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.

Testosterone and anabolic steroids and acne fulminans. Arch Dermatol. 1989; 125(4):571-2 (ISSN: 0003-987X)

Case reports: acne fulminans in Marfan syndrome. J Drugs Dermatol. 2005; 4(4):501-5 (ISSN: 1545-9616)

Acne conglobata and arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1961; 4:632-5 (ISSN: 0004-3591)

Acne fulminans with synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome treated with infliximab. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 52(5 Suppl 1):S118-20 (ISSN: 1097-6787)

Khumalo NP, Jessop S, Gumedze F, Ehrlich R. Hairdressing and the prevalence of scalp disease in African adults. Br J Dermatol. Nov 2007;157(5):981-8.

Grunwald MH, Ben-Dor D, Livni E, Halevy S. Acne keloidalis-like lesions on the scalp associated with antiepileptic drugs. Int J Dermatol. Oct 1990;29(8):559-61

Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). Page 685. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.

Wolff, Klaus Dieter; et al. (2008). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-146690-8.

James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. Page 245. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.

Alikhan, Ali; Lynch, Eisen (2009). “Hidradenitis suppurativa: a comprehensive review”. J Am Acad Derm 60 (4): 539–561.

Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelso; Abbas, Abul (2004) Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Saunders. Page 1230. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.

Michalczyk, A; Varigos, G; Catto-Smith, A; Blomeley, Rc; Ackland, Ml (August 2003). “Analysis of zinc transporter, hZnT4 ( Slc30A4), gene expression in a mammary gland disorder leading to reduced zinc secretion into milk”. Human Genetics 113 (3): 202–10. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-0952-2. PMID 12743795.

James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.

Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology – Expert Consult – Online and Print, 11e (James, Andrew’s Disease of the Skin) William D. James MD (Author), Timothy Berger MD (Author), Dirk Elston MD (Author)

Oculocutaneous albinism. Okulicz JF1, Shah RS, Schwartz RA, Janniger CK.J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003 May;17(3):251-6.

Phornphutkul C, Introne WJ, Perry MB, et al. (2002). “Natural history of alkaptonuria”. New England Journal Medicine 347 (26): 2111–21. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021736. PMID 12501223.

Doctoroff A, Oberlender AS, Purcell SM. Full face carbon dioxide resurfacing in the management of a patient with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Dermatol Surg, 2003;29(12):1236-1240

Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CA, Bouquot JE. (2002). Oral & maxillofacial pathology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. pp. 141, 142, 163, 689, 713. ISBN 0721690033.

Saulsbury FT (2001). “Henoch-Schönlein purpura”. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 13 (1): 35–40. doi:10.1097/00002281-200101000-00006. PMID 11148713.

Introduction to Sports Stress Injuries

Current concepts in concussion diagnosis and management in sports: A clinical review Issue: BCMJ, Vol. 48, No. 9, November 2006, page(s) 453-459 Articles David Brooks, MD, Brian M. Hunt, MD, FRCSC, FACS

Brain Injury Medicine: Principles and Practice edited by Nathan Zasler, Douglas Katz, MD, Ross D. Zafonte
Springer Demos Medic Series Editors Nathan Zasler, Douglas Katz, MD, Ross D. Zafonte Demos Medical Publishing, 2007

Bone and Muscle: Structure, Force, and Motion Human body Editor Kara Rogers Publisher The Rosen Publishing Group, 2010 ISBN 1615301011, 9781615301010

Traumatic Brain Injury: Methods for Clinical and Forensic Neuropsychiatric Assessment, Second Edition
Author Robert P. Granacher, Jr. Edition 2, illustrated, revised Publisher CRC Press, 2007 ISBN 0849381398

Conservative Management of Sports Injuries Editors Thomas E. Hyde, Marianne S. Gengenbach Edition Publisher Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2007 ISBN 0763732524

Essentials of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation: Musculoskeletal Disorders, Pain, and Rehabilitation
Editors Walter R. Frontera, Julie K. Silver, Thomas D. Rizzo Publisher Elsevier Health Sciences, 2008

Golf Fitness: Play Better, Play Without Pain, Play Longer, and Enjoy the Game More Author Karen Palacios-Jansen
Editor Publisher Taylor Trade Publications, 2011 ISBN 1589796128

Catastrophic Injuries in Sports and Recreation: Causes and Prevention : a Canadian Study Editor Charles H. Tator
Edition illustrated Publisher University of Toronto Press, 2008 ISBN 0802089674

The Athlete’s Shoulder MD Consult Contributors Kevin E. Wilk, Michael M. Reinold, James Rheuben Andrews
Edition Publisher Elsevier Health Sciences, 2009 ISBN 0443067015

Malik S, Chiampas G, Leonard H (November 2010). “Emergent evaluation of injuries to the shoulder, clavicle, and humerus”. Emerg Med Clin North Am 28 (4): 739–63.

The Anatomy of Sports Injuries Author Brad Walker Edition illustrated Publisher North Atlantic Books, 2007
ISBN 1556436661

Tunnel Syndromes Authors Marko M. Pecina, Andrew D. Markiewitz, Jelena Krmpotic-Nemanic Edition 3, illustrated, revised Publisher CRC Press, 2001 ISBN 0849309522

MasterCases in Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Larry D. Field, Felix H. Savoie
Publisher Thieme, 2011 ISBN 1604060662

Acute Management of Hand Injuries AuthorsAndrew J. Weiland, Rachel S. Rohde
Edition illustrated Publisher SLACK Incorporated, 2009 ISBN 1556428537

Guide to the Diagnosis of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders: De Quervain’s tenosynovitis
Volume 2 of Guide to the Diagnosis of Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders,Publisher ISBN 2921146711

Pathology and Intervention in Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Editor David J. Magee James E. Zachazewski, William S. Quillen Edition illustrated Publisher Elsevier Health Sciences, 2008

A comprehensive review of hip labral tears- Megan M. Grohcorresponding and Joseph Herrera
Curr Rev Musculoskelet Med. Jun 2009; 2(2): 105–117.

Sports and Exercise Injuries: Conventional, Homeopathic and Alternative Treatments Steven I. Subotnick
Publisher North Atlantic Books, 1991 ISBN 1556431147

Miller, Frederick W (10 June 2009). “Classification of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies”. In Kagen, Lawrence J. The Inflammatory Myopathies. Springer. pp. 23–36. ISBN 9781627038393.

Woolston, Chris. “Ills & Conditions – Athletic Heart Syndrome”. CVS Caremark Health Information. 17 January 2007. http://healthresources.caremark.com/topic/ahs

Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, van der Laarse A, et al: The athlete’s
heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function. Circulation 101:336–344, 2001

Ferreira M, Santos-Silva PR, de Abreu LC, Valenti VE, Crispim V, Imaizumi C, Filho CF, Murad N, Meneghini A, Riera AR, de Carvalho TD, Vanderlei LC, Valenti EE, Cisternas JR, Moura Filho OF, Ferreira C (Aug 3, 2010). “Sudden cardiac death athletes: a systematic review”. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol 2:19. doi:10.1186/1758-2555-2-19. PMC 2923123. PMID 20682064.

Van Camp SP, Bloor CM, Mueller FO, Cantu RC, Olson HG (1995). “Nontraumatic sports death in high school and college athletes”. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27 (5): 641–7. PMID 7674867.

Maron and Mitchell, 1994; Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness, 1997

Cardiac arrhythmias in the athlete. Link MS, Homoud MK, Wang PJ, Estes NA 3rd.

McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Rower’s rump. Tomecki KJ, Mikesell JF. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3571560

Tlougan BE, Mancini AJ, Mandell JA, Cohen DE, Sanchez MR. Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part I – mechanical dermatoses. Sports Med. Sep 1 2011;41(9):709-19.

Fundamentals of Geriatric Massage

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Werner, Ruth A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4 edition (2008)

Rowe, J.W.; Kahn, R.L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0375400451.

Webster, N. (2003). Webster’s new American dictionary. New York: HarperCollins.

Dannefer D (November 2003). “Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory”. J Gerontol B
Psychol Sci Soc Sci 58 (6): S327–37. PMID 14614120.

Phillipson, C.; Baars, J. (2007). “Ch. 4: Social theory and social ageing”. Ageing in Society (3rd ed.). SAGE. pp. 68–84. ISBN 978-1-4129-0020-1

Kaplan, Abraham (1964). The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Science. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0448-8.

Phillipson, C.; Baars, J. (2007). “Ch. 4: Social theory and social ageing”. Ageing in Society (3rd ed.). SAGE. pp. 68–84. ISBN 978-1-4129-0020-1.

Phillipson, C.; Baars, J. (2007). “Ch. 4: Social theory and social ageing”. Ageing in Society (3rd ed.). SAGE. pp. 68–84. ISBN 978-1-4129-0020-1.

Blalock, H.M. (1982). Conceptualization and measurement in the social sciences. Beverly Hills: Sage. ISBN 0803918046

Phillipson, C.; Baars, J. (2007). “Ch. 4: Social theory and social ageing”. Ageing in Society (3rd ed.). SAGE. pp. 68–84. ISBN 978-1-4129-0020-1.

VickyRN. (August 2, ’09). Theories of Aging (Part 3) – Sociological Theories. Retrieved Friday, April 20, 2012, from http://allnurses-breakroom.com/showthread.php?t=412760

Phillipson, C.; Baars, J. (2007). “Ch. 4: Social theory and social ageing”. Ageing in Society (3rd ed.). SAGE. pp. 68–84. ISBN 978-1-4129-0020-1.

Failla, G (30). “The aging process and cancerogenesis”. Ann N Y Acad Sci 71 (6): 1124–1140. PMID 13585876. Retrieved 7 May 2013.

Szilard, Leo (January 1959). “On the nature of the aging process”. Proc Natl Acad Sci 45 (1): 30–45. PMID 16590351. Retrieved 7 May 2013.

Freitas, AA; de Magalhaes, JP (Jul-Oct 2011). “A review and appraisal of the DNA damage theory of ageing”. Mutat Res 728 ((1-2)): 12–22. PMID 21600302. Retrieved 7 May 2013.

Sawada M, Carlson JC. Changes in superoxide radical and lipid peroxide formation in the brain, heart and liver during the lifetime of the rat. Mechanisms Of Ageing And Development. 1987;41(1-2):125-37.

Hamilton CA, Brosnan MJ, McIntyre M, Graham D, Dominiczak AF. Superoxide excess in hypertension and aging: a common cause of endothelial dysfunction. Hypertension. 2001;37(2 Part 2):529-34.

Donato AJ, Eskurza I, Silver AE, Levy AS, Pierce GL, Gates PE, et al. Direct evidence of endothelial oxidative stress with aging in humans: relation to impaired endothelium-dependent dilation and upregulation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Circulation Research. 2007;100(11):1659-66.

C. Richter, JW Park, BN Ames “Normal oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA is extensive” “PNAS”, 1988.

Taylor, Albert W. (2008). Physiology of Exercise and Healthy Aging. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5838-4.

Schneider, E. L. (1992). “Biological theories of aging.” Generations, 16(4), 7.
de Grey, Aubrey (January 8, 2003). “An engineer’s approach to the development of real anti-aging medicine”. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2003 (1): VP1. doi:10.1126/sageke.2003.1.vp1. PMID 12844502.

Hekimi S, Lapointe J, Wen Y. Taking a “good” look at free radicals in the aging process. Trends In Cell Biology. 2011;21(10):569-76.

Harman, D (1956). “Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry”. Journal of Gerontology 11 (3): 298–300. PMID 13332224.

Pérez VI, Bokov A, Remmen HV, Mele J, Ran Q, Ikeno Y, et al. Is the oxidative stress theory of aging dead? Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects. 2009;1790(10):1005-14.

Taylor, Albert W. (2008). Physiology of Exercise and Healthy Aging. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5838-4.

Silverman LK., Phillips. “Homogeneity of effect sizes for sex across spatial tests and cultures: implications for hormonal theories.”. 1996;31:90–94. Brain Cogn.

Carrie A. Werner (2010). “The Older Population: 2010”. 2010 Census Briefs. U.S. Census Bureau. C2010BR-09.

Taylor, Albert W. (2008). Physiology of Exercise and Healthy Aging. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5838-4.

“Population”. 2008 Older Americans : Key indicators of Well-Being. 2008.
Carrie A. Werner (2010). “The Older Population: 2010” (PDF). 2010 Census Briefs. U.S. Census Bureau. C2010BR-09.

Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). “Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations”. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1, Article 5). doi:10.2202/1941-6008.1011.

JOURNALS
Barstow, Cedar. Tending Body and Spirit: Massage and Counseling with Elders. Boulder, Colorado: Cedar Barstow, 1985 (inspired by students at the Boulder School of Massage Therapy).
Doress, Paula Brown, Diana Laskin Siegal, and the Midlife and Older Women Book Project. Ourselves, Growing Older. New York: Simon and Schuster, Touchstone, 1987 (written in collaboration with the Boston Women’s Health Book Collective).
Dychtwald, Ken. Age Power: How the 21st Century Will be Ruled by the New Old. New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/ Putnam, 1999.
Dychtward, Ken and Joe Flower. Age Wave: The Challenges and Opportunities of an Aging America. Los Angeles: Jeremy P. Tarcher, Inc., 1989.
Kahn, Robert L. and John W. Rowe. Successful Aging. New York: Pantheon Books, 1998.

Nelson, Dawn. Compassionate Touch: Hands-On Caregiving for the Elderly, the Ill and the Dying. Barrytown, New York: Station Hill Press, 1994.
Pipher, Mary. Another Country: Navigating the Emotional Territory of Our Elders. New York: Riverhead Books, 1999.

Special thanks to the The National Institute on Aging (NIA)
Much of our information on the biological changes in aging is taken from the The National Institute on Aging (NIA) “The Leader in Aging Research”
The NIA is one of the 27 Institutes and Centers of National Institute of Health (NIH) which, leads a broad scientific effort to understand the nature of aging and to extend the healthy, active years of life.

Massage Therapy and Sleep Disorders

Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research, Colten HR, Altevogt BM (eds). Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.

National Commission of Sleep Disorders Research. Wake Up America: A National Sleep Alert: Report of the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research. Washington, DC: The National Commission; 1993, 1994.

Wittmann V, Rodenstein DO. Health care costs and the sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8(4):269-279.

Webb WB. The cost of sleep-related accidents: a reanalysis. Sleep. 1995;18(4):276-280.

Leger D. The cost of sleepiness: a response to comments. Sleep. 1995;18(4):281-284.
Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Coulouvrat C, et al. Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America Insomnia Survey. Sleep. 2011;34(9):1161-1171.

Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research, Colten HR, Altevogt BM (eds). Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.

Macmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd. (1981), p. 936. Retrieved 1 October 2009.

Bingham, Roger; Terrence Sejnowski, Jerry Siegel, Mark Eric Dyken, Charles Czeisler, Paul Shaw, Ralph Greenspan, Satchin Panda, Philip Low, Robert Stickgold, Sara Mednick,
Allan Pack, Luis de Lecea, David Dinges, Dan Kripke, Giulio Tononi (February 2007). “Waking Up To Sleep” (Several conference videos). The Science Network. Retrieved 25 January 2008.

National Sleep Foundation. Sleep-Wake Cycle: Its Physiology and Impact on Health. Available at http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/SleepWakeCycle.pdf. Last accessed November 30, 2012.

More daylight can mean less sleep for many Alaskans March 17, 2010|by Lori Tipton http://articles.ktuu.com/2010-03-17/circadian-rhythm_24128484

Nasa to test space-sleep colour-changing lights http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-20753888

National Sleep Foundation. Sleep-Wake Cycle: Its Physiology and Impact on Health. Available at http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/SleepWakeCycle.pdf

Huang ZL, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. The role of adenosine in the regulation of sleep. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11(8):1047-1057.

Pfeiffer, Eric (19 June 2012). “Teen with ‘Sleeping Beauty Syndrome’ wakes up after two months”. Yahoo! News. Retrieved 19 September 2012.

“Sexsomnia”. Psychology Today. 2009 and Salkeld, Luke (7 August 2007).

“Sexomniac” RAF Man Sobs as he is Cleared of Raping a Girl in his Sleep”. Daily Mail (London) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-473525/Sexsomniac-RAF-man-sobs-cleared-raping-girl-sleep.html .

Distribution of hallucinations in the population, A. Y. Tien, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 1991, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 287-292

Effect of therapeutic massage on insomnia and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. Oliveira DS, Hachul H, Goto V, Tufik S, Bittencourt LR.Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Brazil. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22017318

“Research: Massage Eases Lower Back Pain, Increases Range of Motion,” Massage Magazine, January/February 2002.

Newton KM, Buist DSM, Keenan NL, Anderson LA, LaCroix AZ. Use of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms: Results of a population-based survey. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:18–25. 10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02005-7 [PubMed]

Schiff A. Literature review of back massage and similar techniques to promote sleep in elderly people. Pflege. 2006;19:163–73. 10.1024/1012-5302.19.3.163 [PubMed]

Daley A, MacArthur C, McManis R, Stokes-Lampard H, Wilson S, Roalfe A, et al. Factors associated with the use of complementary medicine and non-pharmacological intervention in symptomatic menopausal women. Climacteric. 2006;9:336–46. 10.1080/13697130600864074 [PubMed]

Field T, Reif MH, Diego M, Schangerg S, Kuhn C. Cortisol decreases and serotonin and dopamine increase following massage therapy. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115:1397–413. 10.1080/00207450590956459 [PubMed]

Zhou YF, Wei YL, Zhang PL, Gao S, Ning GL, Zhang ZQ, et al. Multi-central controlled study on three-part massage therapy for treatment of insomnia of deficiency of both the heart and spleen. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2006;26:385–8. [PubMed]

Fundamentals of Traditional Chinese Medicine

The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor, translated by Zhu Ming, Foreign Language Press, Beijing, China, 2001, 302 pages.

Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji with Kevin Baker. “A Manuel of Acupuncture” Journal of Chinese Mediceine, 2007.

O’Conner J and Bensky D (translators), Acupuncture: A Comprehensive Text, 1981 Eastland Press, Seattle, WA.

Wiseman, Nigel and Andy Ellis (1995). Fundamentals of Chinese Medicine: Zhong Yi Xue Ji Chu. Revised edition. Brookline, Mass.: Paradigm Publications.

BIBLIOGRAPHY-JOURNALS
Sivin, Nathan (1988). “Science and Medicine in Imperial China—The State of the Field.” The Journal of Asian Studies (Vol. 47, number 1): 41–90.

Yu Lubin How To Learn Chinese Herbs 1-6 The Journal of Chinese Medicine vol 24-75

Haosheng Zhang The Art of Applying Chinese Herbs The Journal of Chinese Medicine vol 79-34

Zhu Ming (June 2007) On the natural medical features of Traditional Chinese Medicine The Journal of Chinese Medicine

Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji with Kevin Baker. “A Manuel of Acupuncture” Journal of Chinese Mediceine, 2007.

Effects of Traditional Cupping Therapy in Patients With Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial published in The Journal of Pain Volume 10, Issue 6, June 2009, Pages 601–608

Clinical Efficacy of Hijamat (Cupping) in Waja-ul-Mafasil (Arthritis) Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge Vol.04 October 2005

Wang Kenliang, Several diseases treated by suppurative moxibustion therapy, 2000 International Congress on Traditional Medicine, April 22-24, Beijing.

Li Huailin, 34 cases of herpes zoster treated by moxibustion at dazhui (GV-14), Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1992; 12 (1): 71.

Shi Huaisheng, et al., Ginger-partitioned moxibustion on sifeng point (extra-29) in treating children’s asthenia and its effects on cellular immune functions, Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion 1995; (6): 9-10.
Xhou Jianwei, et al., Impact of medicated mugwort moxibustion on serum gastrin, d-xylose excretion rate, and T-cell subgroup in patients with spleen deficiency syndrome, Chinese Acupuncture and Moxibustion 1998; (1): 15-16.

Wu Huangan, et al., Clinical therapeutic effect of drug-separated moxibustion on chronic diarrhea and its immunological mechanisms, Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1997; 17(4): 253-258.

Hu Guosheng, et al., Clinical observations on Hashimoto’s thyroiditis treated by indirect moxibustion with various Chinese medicines, Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 1996; 16(1): 27-32.

Tang Youwei and Chen Shuhong, Acupuncture, moxibustion, and the immune system, International Journal of Oriental Medicine, 1999; 24(4): 192-198.

Japanese Health Ministry confirms effectiveness of Tsumura’s top-selling kampo herbal prescription. Kampo Today [serial online]. 1995;1. Available at: http://www.tsumura.co.jp/english/ . Accessed November 4, 2002.

Oka H, Yamamoto S, Kuroki T, et al. Prospective study of chemoprevention of hepatocellular carcinoma with sho-saiko-to (TJ-9). Cancer. 1995;76:743-749.

Leung WK, Wu JC, Liang SM, et al. Treatment of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome with traditional Chinese herbal medicine: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2006;101:1574-1580.

A double-blind study is used to reevaluate constipation formula. Kampo Today [serial online]. 2000:4. Available at: http://www.tsumura.co.jp/english/ . Accessed November 4, 2002.

Chinese herbal recipe versus diclofenac in symptomatic treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN70292892] Supanimit Teekachunhatean1, Puongtip Kunanusorn1, Noppamas Rojanasthien1, Kanit Sananpanich2, Suwalee Pojchamarnwiputh3, Sorasak Lhieochaiphunt4 and Sumalee Pruksakorn5

Am. J. Chin. Med. 31, 445 (2003). DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X03001144
Effect of Orally Administered Shao-Yao-Gan-Cao-Tang (Shakuyaku-kanzo-to) on Muscle Cramps in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients: A Preliminary Study
Fumihiko Hinoshita

Sheehan MP, Rustin MH, Atherton DJ, et al. Efficacy of traditional Chinese herbal therapy in adult atopic dermatitis. Lancet. 1992;340:13-17.

Schattner P, Randerson D. Tiger Balm as a treatment of tension headache. A clinical trial in general practice. Aust Fam Physician. 1996;25:216,218,22

Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Chinese Herb Therapy for HIV-1-Infected Individuals.
Weber, Rainer; Christen, Lisanne; Loy, Monika; Schaller, Silvio; Christen, Stephan; Joyce, Charles R. B.; Ledermann, Ueli; Ledergerber, Bruno; Cone, Richard; Lüthy, Ruedi; Cohen, Misha R.

Chen S, Flower A, Ritchie A, et al. Oral Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) as an adjuvant treatment during chemotherapy for non-small cell lung cancer: A systematic review. Lung Cancer. 2010 May;68(2):137.

Introduction to Meridians and Acupoints

The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor, translated by Zhu Ming, Foreign Language Press, Beijing, China, 2001, 302 pages.

Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji with Kevin Baker. “A Manuel of Acupuncture” Journal of Chinese Mediceine, 2007.

O’Conner J and Bensky D (translators), Acupuncture: A Comprehensive Text, 1981 Eastland Press, Seattle, WA.

Wiseman, Nigel and Andy Ellis (1995). Fundamentals of Chinese Medicine: Zhong Yi Xue Ji Chu. Revised edition. Brookline, Mass.: Paradigm Publications.

Tenets of Zen Shiatsu

The Medical Classic of the Yellow Emperor, translated by Zhu Ming, Foreign Language Press, Beijing, China, 2001, 302 pages.

Peter Deadman and Mazin Al-Khafaji with Kevin Baker. “A Manuel of Acupuncture” Journal of Chinese Mediceine, 2007.

O’Conner J and Bensky D (translators), Acupuncture: A Comprehensive Text, 1981 Eastland Press, Seattle, WA.

Wiseman, Nigel and Andy Ellis (1995). Fundamentals of Chinese Medicine: Zhong Yi Xue Ji Chu. Revised edition. Brookline, Mass.: Paradigm Publications.

Visualization of the Meridian System Based on Biomedical Information about Acupuncture Treatment In-Seon Lee, Soon-Ho

Lee, Song-Yi Kim, Hyejung Lee, Hi-Joon Park, and Younbyoung Chae BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine

A Shiatsu Story: Tokujiro Namikoshi Remembered By Kensen Saito Massage Bodywork magazine, February/March 2001.
Shizuto Masunaga Zen Shiatsu: how to Harmonize Yin and Yang for better Health

Damasio, A.R.; Tranel, D.; Damasio, H.C. (1991). “Ch. 11: Somatic markers and the guidance of behaviour: theory and preliminary testing”. In Levin, Harvey S.; Eisenberg, Howard M.; Benton, Arthur Lester. Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction. Oxford University Press. pp. 217–229. ISBN 978-0-19-506284-7.

Molecules of Emotion: The Science Behind Mind-Body Medicine by Candace B. Pert (Simon & Schuster) and Bodymind by Ken Dychtwald (Tarcher Putman).

Acupuncture Stimulation Attenuates Impaired Emotional-Like Behaviors and Activation of the Noradrenergic System during Protracted Abstinence following Chronic Morphine Exposure in Rats BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
By Bombi Lee, Bong-Jun Sur, Insop Shim, Dae-Hyun Hahm, and Hyejung Lee

The potential of complementary and alternative medicine in promoting well-being and critical health literacy: a prospective, observational study of shiatsu By Andrew F Long BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009, 9:19 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-19

Massage Therapy Roles and Boundaries

Introduction to Massage Therapy By Mary Beth Braun, Stephanie J. Simonson, Debra C. Howard, Marybetts Sinclair

The Ethics of Touch: The Hands-on Practitioner’s Guide to Creating a Professional, Safe and Enduring Practice by Cherie M Sohnen-Moe, Ben E Benjamin

Ethics for Massage Therapists by Terrie Yardley-Nohr

Informed Consent: Heart of Bodywork By Nina McIntosh
Massage & Bodywork magazine, February/March 2007

Boundaries in the Therapeutic Relationship article by Marjorie L. Rand Ph.D.

 Ethics in Massage Marketing

Introduction to Massage Therapy By Mary Beth Braun, Stephanie J. Simonson, Debra C. Howard, Marybetts Sinclair

Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage 4th edition by Mark F. Beck

Massage Therapy Principles and Practice 3rd edition by Susan G. Salvo

Ethics for Massage Therapists by Terrie Yardley-Nohr

How Advertising Works by colin Mcdonald NTC Publications Ltd

Made You Look: How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know by Shari Graydon

The Placebo Effect: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. Cambridge, by Anne Harrington. MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

The Powerful Placebo: From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician. Shapiro, Arthur K., and Elaine Shapiro. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.

Cultural Sensitivity for Massage Therapists

Recognizing the power of diversity Gardenswartz, L., & Rowe, A. (1993). Physician Executive, 19(6), 64-67.

The art of leading with grace Kerfoot, K. (1999). MEDSURG Nursing, 8(3), 217-218.

Enriching our practice through culturally competent care. Jean M. Nardini

The Healthcare Professional’s Guide to Clinical Cultural Competence
by Rani Srivastava

Cultural Competence in Health Care by Wen-Shing Tseng and Jon Streltzer

InfoTrac Article:
Cultural Competence: A Primer for Educators by Jerry Diller and Jean Moule

“Put Your Best Foot Forward” by Mary Murray Bosrock.

Transference and Countertransference in Massage Therapy

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Susan G. Salvo Massage Therapy: Principles and Practice Saunders; 3 edition (May 3, 2007)

Schaeffer, Judith A. Transference and countertransference in non-analytic therapy; double-edged swords. University Press of America; 1 edition (December 28, 2006)

Howard A. Wishnie Working in the Countertransference: Necessary Entanglements Jason Aronson (January 2005)

A. Alexandris, G. Vaslamatis Countertransference: Theory, Technique, Teaching Karnac Books; 1 edition (May 1992)

Michael A. Pagliarulo Introduction to Physical Therapy
Mosby; 3 edition (July 31, 2006)

When your feelings aren’t your own: understanding transference and countertransference an article in the Massage Therapy Journal, Issue WI06 page 82 Published by the AMTA.

Kapelovitz, Leonard H. (1987). To Love and To Work/A Demonstration and Discussion of Psychotherapy. p. 66.
Webster’s New Collegiate Dictionary (8th ed. 1976).

Jung, Carl C. The Psychology of the Transference, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01752-2

Howard A. Wishnie Working in the Countertransference: Necessary Entanglements Jason Aronson (January 2005)

Michael A. Pagliarulo Introduction to Physical Therapy Mosby; 3 edition (July 31, 2006)

The Three Faces of Victim: An Overview of the Drama Triangle
web article By Lynne Forrest http://lynneforrest.com/html/the_faces_of_victim.html

Goldstein, Bruce E. 2002. Sensation and Perception: 6th Edition. Pacific Grove CA: Wadsworth Group. P 475.

Atanasova. B, 2008. Olfaction: A potential cognitive marker of psychiatric disorder. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 32 (2008) 1315–1325.

Redleaf, Angelica, Behind Closed Doors: Gender, Sexuality, and Touch in the Doctor/Patient Relationship.

Gonsiorek, John C., Perpetrators, in Breach of Trust: Sexual Exploitation by Health Care Professionals and Clergy, John C. Gonsiorek, ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA.; Sage Publications, Inc., 1995), 131.

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Corporate Strategies for Protection and Defense, a seminar handout (Providence, RI: Litch & Semenoff, Attorneys at Law, May 2, 1995).

http://law.justia.com/codes/louisiana/2006/146/78532.html

Concise Encyclopedia: www.merriam-webster.com/browse/concise/a.htm

Sexual Harassment in the Workplace: Corporate Strategies for Protection and Defense, a seminar handout (Providence, RI: Litch & Semenoff, Attorneys at Law, May 2, 1995).

Confidentiality and the Massage practice

The Practical Guide to HIPAA Privacy and Security Compliance
by Kevin Beaver, Rebecca Herold

HIPAA: The Questions You Didn’t Know to Ask by Jason Meyer, Merry Schiff

HIPAA for Medical Office Personnel by Dan Krager and Carole Krager

The HIPAA Law and summary is taken from the Department of Health and Human Services Website: http://www.hhs.gov

Managing Dual Relationships

Mindfulness and the Therapeutic Relationship by Zindel V. Segal, Steven F. Hick, and Thomas Bien (Hardcover – Jul 14, 2008)

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Susan G. Salvo Massage Therapy: Principles and Practice Saunders; 3 edition (May 3, 2007)

Avoiding Exploitive Dual Relationships: A Decision-Making Model Psychotherapy, volume 30, #1, pages 41-48 Carroll, Schneider & Wesley (1985)

Inattentional Blindess References
Mack, A. and Rock, I. (1998). Inattentional Blindness, MIT Press

Rock, I., Linnet, C. M., Grant P.I., & Mack, A. (1992). “Perception without Attention: Results of a new method.” Cognitive Psychology, 24, 502-534.

Most, Steven B. (2010). “What’s “inattentional” about inattentional blindness?”. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4): 1102. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.01.011.

Driver, J. (1998). “The neuropsychology of spatial attention.” In H. Pashler (Ed.), Attention. (pp. 297-340). London: Taylor Francis

Spinks. J.A., Zhang, J.X., Fox, P.T., Gao, J-H., & Tan, L.H. (2004). “More workload on the central executive of working memory, less attention capture by novel visual distractors: evidence from an fMRI study.” NeuroImage, 23, 517-524

Lavie, N., & Tsal, Y. (1994). Perceptual load as a major determinant of the locus of selection in visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 56(2), 183-197

Kahneman, D., & Treisman, A. (1984). “Changing views of attention and automacity.” In R. Parasuraman & D.R Davies (Eds.), Varieties of Attention (pp. 29-61). New York: Academic Press
Mack, A. (2003). “Inattentional blindness: Looking without seeing.” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12(5), 180-184.

Mack, A. (2001). Inattentional blindness: Reply to commentaries. Psyche, 7(16), 1-7.

Rees, G., Russell, C., Firth, C., & Driver, J. (1999). “Inattentional blindness versus inattentional amnesia.” Science, 286, 849-860.

Fougnie, D., & Marois, R. (2007). “Executive working memory load induces inattentional blindness.” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14(1), 142-147.

Simons, D.J. (2000). “Attentional capture and inattentional blindness.” Trends in Cognitive Science, 4(4), 147-155.

Wolfe, J.M. (1999). “Inattentional amnesia”. In V. Coltheart (Ed.), Fleeting Memories (pp.71-94). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Becklen, R., & Cervone, D. (1983). “Selective looking and the noticing of unexpected events.” Memory & Cognition, 11(6), 601-608.

Braun, J. (2001). Its great but not necessarily about attention. Psyche, 7(6), 1-7.

Most, Steven B; Scholl, Brian J; Simons, Daniel J; Clifford, Erin R (2005). “What you see is what you get. Sustained intattentional blindness and the capture of awareness”. I-Psychological Review 112 (1): 217–242. doi:10.1037/0033-295X.112.1.217.

Most, SB; Simons, DJ; Scholl, BJ; Jimenez, R; Clifford, E; Chabris, CF (January 2001). “How not to be seen: the contribution of similarity and selective ignoring to sustained inattentional blindness”. Psychol Sci 12 (1): 9–17. doi:10.1111/1467-9280.00303. PMID 11294235.

Change Blindness Study; The Invisible Gorilla online; retrieved ?

Tracy McVeigh (2008-11-16). “Invisible bear makes cyclists safer”. theguardian.com. Retrieved 2013-12-31.

Chabris, C. Fontaine, M. Simmons, D. Weinberger, A. (2011) “You do Not Talk About Fight Club if You Do Not Notice Fight Club: Inattentional Blindness For A Stimulated Real-World Assult.” i-Perception. 2: 150-153

Carpenter, Siri (2001). “Sights Unseen”. Monitor on Psychology 32 (4): 54. Retrieved 10 October 2012.

Hyman, Ira E.; Boss, S. Matthew; Wise, Breanne M.; McKenzie, Kira E.; Caggiano, Jenna M. (2009). “Did you see the unicycling clown? Inattentional blindness while walking and talking on a cell phone”. Applied Cognitive Psychology 24 (5): 597–607. doi:10.1002/acp.1638.

Memmert, D (September 2006). “The effects of eye movements, age, and expertise on inattentional blindness”. Conscious Cogn 15 (3): 620–7. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2006.01.001. PMID 16487725.

Moore, C. M., & Egeth, H. (1997). “Perception without attention: Evidence of grouping under conditions of inattention.” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 23, 339-352.

Rafal, R. (1998). “Neglect.” In R. Parasuraman (Ed.), The Attentive Brain (pp.489-526). Cambridge. MA: MIT Press.

Humphreys, G.W., Romani, C., Olson, A., Riddoch, M.J. & Duncan, J. (1994). “Non-spatial extinction following lesions of the parietal lobe in humans.” Nature, 372, 357-359.

Mack, A., Tang, B., Tuma, R., & Rock, I. (1992). Perceptual organization and attention. Cognitive Psychology, 24, 475-501.

Neisser, U. (1967). Cognitive psychology. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.

Yantis, S. (1999). Seeing is attending. Contemporary Psychology, 44, 314-316.

Memmert, D. (2006). “The effects of eye movement, age, and expertise on inattentional blindness.” Consciousness and cognition, vol 15, 620-627.
Most et al. (2001). How not to be seen: the contribution of similarity and selective ignoring to sustained inattentional blindness. Psychological Science, vol 1: 9-17

Mack, Arien (2003). “Inattentional blindness: Looking without seeing” (PDF). Current Directions in Psychological Science 12 (5): 179–184. doi:10.1111/1467-8721.01256. Retrieved 10 October 2012.

Bredemeiser, Keith; Simons, DJ (April 2012). “Working memory and inattentional blindness”. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 19 (2): 239–244. doi:10.3758/s13423-011-0204-8.

Inattentional Blindness: Let’s Not Blame The Victim Just Yet; 18(1), 23-29; Canadian Aviation Maintenance Council; 2002; retrieved ?

Has evolution primed humans to ‘beware the beast’?; 104(42); Ohman, A; 2007 Proceedings of the National Science Foundation of the United States of America; retrieved ?

Attentional Capture and Inattentional Blindness: Trends in Cognitive Sciences; 4(4), 147-155; Simons, D. J.; 2000; retrieved ?

What You See Is What You Set: Sustained Inattentional Blindness and the Capture of Awareness; 112(1), 217-242; Simons, D. J., Clifford, E. R., Most, S. B., and Scholl B. J.; American Psychological Association: Psychological Review; retrieved ?

Examining the Impact of Cell Phone Conversations on Driving Using Meta-Analytic Techniques; 48(196), 196-205; Horrey, W. J., & Wickens, C. D.; 2006; “Human Factors: The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society;” retrieved ?

Driving Under Influence of a Phone; Incantalupo, T.; July 22, 2003; Newsday; retrieved ?

Fatal Distraction? A Comparison of the Cell-Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver; Strayer, D. L., Drews, F. A., & Crouch, D. J.; 2003; University of Utah; retrieved ?

Kuhn, G., & Tatler B.W. (2005). “Magic and fixation: Now you don’t see it, now you do.” Perception, 35(9), 1155-1161

Between inattentional blindness and attentional misdirection; “Consciousness and Cognition”; doi:10.1016/j.concog.2010.09.013

Kuhn, G., & Tatler, B. W. “Misdirected by the gap: The relationship between inattentional blindness and attentional misdirection.” Consciousness and Cognition (2010), doi:10.1016/ j.concog.; 2010.09.013

Magic and the Brain; 72-79; Martinez-Conde, S., & Macknik, S. L.; December 2008 article; in Scientific American; retrieved ?

Reflective practice references
Schön, D. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner, How Professionals Think In Action, Basic Books. ISBN 0-465-06878-2.
Jump up ^ Bolton, G (2010) Reflective Practice, Writing and Professional Development (3rd edition), SAGE publications, California. ISBN 1-84860-212-X. p. xix

McBrien, Barry. “Learning from practice–reflections on a critical incident.” Accident and emergency nursing 15.3 (2007): 128-133.

Paterson, Colin, and Judith Chapman. “Enhancing skills of critical reflection to evidence learning in professional practice.” Physical Therapy in Sport 14.3 (2013): 133-138.

Dewey, J. (1933) How We Think. A restatement of the relation of reflective thinking to the educative process (Revised edition.), Boston: D. C. Heath. ISBN 0-486-29895-7.

Kolb, Alice Y.; Kolb, David A. (2005). “Learning Styles and Learning Spaces: Enhancing Experiential Learning in Higher Education”. Academy of Management Learning & Education 4 (2): 193–212. doi:10.5465/AMLE.2005.17268566. CiteSeerX: 10.1.1.127.6489.

Mac Suibhne, S. (2009). “‘Wrestle to be the man philosophy wished to make you’: Marcus Aurelius, reflective practitioner”. Reflective Practice 10 (4): 429–436. doi:10.1080/14623940903138266.
Boud D, Keogh R and Walker D (1985) Reflection, Turning Experience into Learning, Routledge. ISBN 0-85038-864-3. p. 19

Wopereis, Iwan; Sloep, Peter; Poortman, Sybilla (2010). “Weblogs as instruments for reflection on action in teacher education”. Interactive Learning Environments 18 (3): 245. doi:10.1080/10494820.2010.500530.

Smith, Mark K. (2001), Chris Argyris, Encyclopaedia of informal education (infed). Web-page accessed 29 November 2010

Argyris, C & Schön, D (1978) Organization learning: A theory of Action perspective, Reading, Mass: Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-201-00174-8.

Sheilds R.W., D. Aaron, and S. Wall (2001), What is Kolb’s model of experiential education, and where does it come from?, Questions and Answers on Adult Education, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. Web-page accessed 29 November 2010.

Gibbs G. Learning by Doing: A Guide to Teaching and Learning Methods [monograph online]. Reproduced by the Geography Discipline Network; 2001. [cited 2011 Nov 10]

Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods, Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development, Oxford Polytechnic. London: Further Education Unit. ISBN 1-85338-071-7. Section 4.3.5.

Grech, E. (2004), “Hegel’s dialectic and reflective practice – a short essay”. International Journal of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. 8, 71–73.

Carper, Barbara A. (October 1978). “Fundamental Patterns of Knowing in Nursing”. Advances in Nursing Science 1 (1): 13–24. doi:10.1097/00012272-197810000-00004.

Johns, C (1995). “Framing learning through reflection within Carper’s fundamental ways of knowing in nursing”. Journal of advanced nursing 22 (2): 226–34. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.1995.22020226.x. PMID 7593941.

Brookfield, Stephan (1998). “Critically Reflective Practice”. Journal of Continuing Education in the Health Profession 18 (4): 197–205. doi:10.1002/chp.1340180402.

Borton, T (1970), Reach, Touch and Teach. London, U.K.:Hutchinson. ISBN 0-07-006571-3.[page needed]

Rolfe, G., Freshwater, D., Jasper, M. (2001) (eds.) Critical Reflection for Nursing and the Helping Professions. Basingstoke, U.K: Palgrave. ISBN 0-333-77795-6. pp. 26 et seq., p. 35

Otl Aicher: The World as Design. Ernst & Sohn: Berlin 1991, p. 179-189

Gänshirt, Christian: Tools for Ideas. An Introduction to Architectural Design. Basel, Boston, Berlin: Birkhäuser, 2007, ISBN 978-3-7643-7577-5, pp. 78-80

Thomas Fischer: Design Enigma. A typographical metaphor for enigmatic processes, including designing, in: T. Fischer, K. De Biswas, J.J. Ham, R. Naka, W.X. Huang, Beyond Codes and Pixels: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Computer-Aided Architectural Design Research in Asia, p. 686

Jane Anderson: Architectural Design, Basics Architecture 03, Lausanne, AVA academia, 2011, ISBN 978-2-940411-26-9, p. 40

Thomas Alois Wortmann: Representing Shapes as Graphs: A Feasible Approach for the Computer Implementation of Parametric Visual Calculating, Cambridge, MA, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2013, p. 12

Boud D, Keogh R and Walker D (1985) Reflection, Turning Experience into Learning. Routledge. ISBN 0-85038-864-3.

Larrivee, Barbara (2000). “Transforming Teaching Practice: Becoming the critically reflective teacher”. Reflective Practice 1 (3): 293. doi:10.1080/713693162.

Schön D (1983) The Reflective Practitioner, How Professionals Think In Action, Basic Books
Leitch, Ruth; Day, Christopher (2000). “Action research and reflective practice: towards a holistic view”. Educational Action Research 8: 179. doi:10.1080/09650790000200108.

Fien, John; Rawling, Richard (1996). “Reflective Practice: A Case Study of Professional Development for Environmental Education”. The Journal of Environmental Education 27 (3): 11. doi:10.1080/00958964.1996.9941462.

Schäfer, WD (1971). “Prostheses and epitheses in ophthalmology. What should a practitioner know”. Zeitschrift fur Allgemeinmedizin 47 (3): 118–21. PMID 5566542.

Hendricks, J; Mooney, D; Berry, C (1996). “A practical strategy approach to use of reflective practice in critical care nursing”. Intensive & critical care nursing 12 (2): 97–101. doi:10.1016/S0964-3397(96)81042-1. PMID 8845631.

Price, A (4 August 2004). “Encouraging reflection and critical thinking in practice”. Nursing Standard 18 (47).

Walker, S (1996). “Reflective practice in the accident and emergency setting”. Accident and emergency nursing 4 (1): 27–30. doi:10.1016/S0965-2302(96)90034-X. PMID 8696852.

Jasper, M. (2003) Beginning Reflective Practice (Foundations in Nursing and Health Care). Cheltenham: Nelson Thomas Ltd. ISBN 0-7487-7117-4.

Mann, Karen; Gordon, MacLeod (2009). “Reflection and reflective Practice in health professions education: a systematic review”. Adv in Health Sci Educ 14: 595–621. doi:10.1007/s10459-007-9090-2.

Davies, Samantha (2012). “Embracing reflective practice”. Education for Primary Care 23: 9–12.

Bryant, R.L.; Wilson, G.A. (1998). “Rethinking environmental management”. Progress in Human Geography 22 (3): 321. doi:10.1191/030913298672031592.

Fazey, Ioan; Fazey, John A.; Salisbury, Janet G.; Lindenmayer, David B.; Dovers, Steve (2006). “The nature and role of experiential knowledge for environmental conservation”. Environmental Conservation 33: 1. doi:10.1017/S037689290600275X.

Bell, S; Morse, S (2005). “Delivering sustainability therapy in sustainable development projects”. Journal of Environmental Management 75 (1): 37. doi:10.1016/j.jenvman.2004.11.006. PMID 15748802.

Avolio, Bruce; Avey, James, Quisenberry, David (2010). “Estimating Return on Leadership Development Investment”. The Leadership Quarterly 21: 633. doi:10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.06.006.

“International Coach Federation”.

Fisher Turesky, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Dennis (June 2011). “Know Thyself: Coaching for Leadership using Kolb’s Experiential Learning Theory”. The Coaching Psychologist 7 (1): 5.

Mezirow, Jack (Summer 1997). “Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice”. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 74: 5. doi:10.1002/ace.7401.

Mezirow, Jack (Summer 1997). “Transformative Learning: Theory to Practice”. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 74: 7. doi:10.1002/ace.7401.

Somerville, D; Keeling, J (2004). “A practical approach to promote reflective practice within nursing”. Nursing Times 100 (12): 42–5. PMID 15067912.

Understanding Power Differential in Massage Therapy

Introduction to Massage Therapy By Mary Beth Braun, Stephanie J. Simonson, Debra C. Howard, Marybetts Sinclair

Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage 4th edition by Mark F. Beck

Massage Therapy Principles and Practice 3rd edition by Susan G. Salvo

The Ethics of Touch: The Hands-on Practitioner’s Guide to Creating a Professional, Safe and Enduring Practice by Cherie M Sohnen-Moe, Ben E Benjamin

Ethics for Massage Therapists by Terrie Yardley-Nohr

Mark R. Leary, “Toward a Conceptualization of Interpersonal Rejection,” in Interpersonal Rejection, ed. Mark R. Leary (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 3–20.

Owen Hargie, Skilled Interpersonal Interaction: Research, Theory, and Practice (London: Routledge, 2011), 2.

Kipling D. Williams and Lisa Zadro, “Ostracism: On Being Ignored, Excluded, and Rejected,” in Interpersonal Rejection, ed. Mark R. Leary (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), 21–54.

Sharon Shalev, “Solitary Confinement and Supermax Prisons: A Human Rights and Ethical Analysis,” Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice 11, no. 2 (2011): 151.

Brant R. Burleson, Sandra Metts, and Michael W. Kirch, “Communication in Close Relationships,” in Close Relationships: A Sourcebook, eds. Clyde Hendrick and Susan S. Hendrick (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000), 247.

Erving Goffman, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life (New York: Anchor Books, 1959

Brant R. Burleson, Sandra Metts, and Michael W. Kirch, “Communication in Close Relationships,” in Close Relationships:

A Sourcebook, eds. Clyde Hendrick and Susan S. Hendrick (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2000), 252
Walter R. Fisher, “Narration as Human Communication Paradigm: The Case of Public Moral Argument,” Communication Monographs 51, no. 1 (1985): 1–22.

R. A. Bell and J. G. Healey, “Idiomatic Communication and Interpersonal Solidarity in Friends’ Relational Cultures,” Human Communication Research 18 (1992): 307–35

Robert A. Bell and Jonathan G. Healey, “Idiomatic Communication and Interpersonal Solidarity in Friends’ Relational Cultures,” Human Communication Research 18, no. 3 (1992): 312–13.

Howard J. Markman, Mari Jo Renick, Frank J. Floyd, Scott M. Stanley, and Mari Clements, “Preventing Marital Distress through Communication and Conflict Management Training: A 4- and 5-Year Follow-Up,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 61, no. 1 (1993): 70–77.

Steve Gates, “Time to Take Negotiation Seriously,” Industrial and Commercial Training 38 (2006): 238–41.

Maria Reese-Weber and Suzanne Bartle-Haring, “Conflict Resolution Styles in Family Subsystems and Adolescent Romantic Relationships,” Journal of Youth and Adolescence 27, no. 6 (1998): 735–52.

Allan L. Sillars, “Attributions and Communication in Roommate Conflicts,” Communication Monographs 47, no. 3 (1980): 180–200.

John Oetzel, Adolfo J. Garcia, and Stella Ting-Toomey, “An Analysis of the Relationships among Face Concerns and Facework Behaviors in Perceived Conflict Situations: A Four-Culture Investigation,” International Journal of Conflict Management 19, no. 4 (2008): 382–403.

John G. Oetzel and Stella Ting-Toomey, “Face Concerns in Interpersonal Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Empirical Test of the Face Negotiation Theory,” Communication Research 30, no. 6 (2003): 599–624.

Andrew Christensen and Neil S. Jacobson, Reconcilable Differences (New York: Guilford Press, 2000), 17–20.

Continuity of Care in Massage Therapy

Introduction to Massage Therapy By Mary Beth Braun, Stephanie J. Simonson, Debra C. Howard, Marybetts Sinclair

Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage 4th edition by Mark F. Beck

Massage Therapy Principles and Practice 3rd edition by Susan G. Salvo

The Ethics of Touch: The Hands-on Practitioner’s Guide to Creating a Professional, Safe and Enduring Practice by Cherie M Sohnen-Moe, Ben E Benjamin

Ethics for Massage Therapists by Terrie Yardley-Nohr

Bruce Guthrie, John W Saultz, George K Freeman, and Jeannie L Haggerty Continuity of care matters

Bodenheimer, T. (2008). Coordinating Care—A Perilous Journey through the Health Care System. NEJM 358: 1064-1071

Massage Business Bookkeeping

David A. Flannery Bookkeeping Made Simple Made Simple; 3 edition (May 17, 2005)

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Susan G. Salvo Massage Therapy: Principles and Practice Saunders; 3 edition (May 3, 2007)

Thomas R. Ittelson Financial Statements: A Step-By-Step Guide to Understanding and Creating Financial Reports Career Press; 1 edition (February 1998)

Targeted Marketing for Massage Therapists

Introduction to Massage Therapy By Mary Beth Braun, Stephanie J. Simonson, Debra C. Howard, Marybetts Sinclair

Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage 4th edition by Mark F. Beck

Massage Therapy Principles and Practice 3rd edition by Susan G. Salvo

Ethics for Massage Therapists by Terrie Yardley-Nohr

How Advertising Works by colin Mcdonald NTC Publications Ltd

Made You Look: How Advertising Works and Why You Should Know by Shari Graydon

The Placebo Effect: An Interdisciplinary Exploration. Cambridge, by Anne Harrington. MA: Harvard University Press, 1999.

The Powerful Placebo: From Ancient Priest to Modern Physician. Shapiro, Arthur K., and Elaine Shapiro. Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1997.

The Wellness Center Model

Wellness Centers: A Guide for the Design Professional

by Joan Whaley Gallup, published by Wiley Healthcare

Friends channel energies to form wellness center An article by Rick Archer (Westchester County Business Journal)

Wellness Center provides health knowledge. An Article by Neil W. Treister (San Diego Business Journal)

U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: Occupational Outlook Handbook, 2010-11 Edition. — Dietitians and Nutritionists. Accessed 11 March 2011.

Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, George Rosen, Yale University Dept. of the History of Science and Medicine, Project Muse, H. Schuman, 1954

Paige, John C; Laura Woulliere Harrison (1987). Out of the Vapors: A Social and Architectural History of Bathhouse Row, Hot Springs National Park. U.S. Department of the Interior.

Gross, Jane (October 14, 1985). “Bathhouses reflect AIDS concerns”. The New York Times. Retrieved 26 December 2006. “At the St. Marks Baths, for the price of a locker or a room, patrons now get a free condom, enclosed in a package that bears the legend the contents of this envelope could save your life.”

Survey of US hospitals by Health Forum, a subsidiary of the American Hospital Association.

Tex. Admin. Code § 200.3. Complementary and Integrative Medicine: An Update for Texas Physicians

Client Retention for Massage Therapists

Clow, Kenneth E. and Baack, Donald (2010). Marketing Management: A Customer-Oriented Approach.

Keeping your Clients for Life: Developing Customer Loyalty
Business Side Colleen (Steigerwald) Holloway
Massage & Bodywork magazine, June/July 2003.

Creative Solutions for Your Business: Part 1
Business Side Daryl Kulak Massage & Bodywork magazine, June/July 2006.

What Clients Love: A Field Guide to Growing Your Business
Harry Beckwith, Business Plus (January 2, 2003)

Keep ‘Em Coming Back: SalonOvations Guide to Salon Promotion and Client Retention (Paperback)
Lee Hoffman Milady; 1 edition (April 20, 1994)

Domjan, Michael, Ed., The Principles of Learning and Behavior, Fifth Edition, Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2003

Loyal for Life: How to Take Unhappy Customers from Hell to Heaven in 60 Seconds or Less — John Tschohl

Vincent P. Magnini, John B. Ford, Edward P. Markowski, Earl D. Honeycutt Jr, (2007) “The service recovery paradox: justifiable theory or smoldering myth?”, Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 21 Iss: 3, pp.213 – 225

A conceptual framework for the Service Recovery Paradox Krishna, A.; Dangayach, G. S.; Jain, R. Marketing Review;Spring2011, Vol. 11 Issue 1, p41 Academic Journal

Fundamentals of Aromatherapy Massage

Dodt, Colleen. The Essential Oils Book. Storey Publishing, LLC, 1996.

Edwards, Victoria H. The Aromatherapy Companion. Storey Publishing, LLC, 1999).

Gattefossé, René-Maurice. Gattefossé’s Aromatherapy. The CW Daniel Company Limited, 1993.

Lawless, Julia. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Essential Oils. Element Books, Inc., 1995.

Rose, Jeanne. 375 Essential Oils and Hydrosols. Frog Ltd., 1999.

Schnaubelt, Kurt. Advanced Aromatherapy. Healing Arts Press, 1998.

Tisserand, R. and Balacs, T. Essential Oil Safety. Churchill Livingstone, 1995.

Carol and David Schiller 500 Formulas for aromatherapy, Sterling Publishing Company, New York.

Worwood, Valerie Ann. The Complete Book of Essential Oils and Aromatherapy. New World Library, 1991.

Cooke B, Ernst E. Aromatherapy: a systematic review. British Journal of General Practice 2000 June: 495.

Vickers, A. Why aromatherapy works (even if it doesn’t) and why we need less research. British Journal of General Practice 2000 June:445.

Thorgrimsen L et al. Aromatherapy for dementia. Cochrane Database Systematic Review 2003,(3):CD003150.

Fundamentals of Prenatal Massage

Karzel RP, Freedman MJ. Orthopedic injuries in pregnancy. In: in Pregnancy, 2nd ed, Artal R, Wiswell RA, Drinkwater BL (Eds), Lippencott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1991.

Foti T, Davids JR, Bagley A. A biomechanical analysis of gait during pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82:625.

Gilleard W, Crosbie J, Smith R. Effect of pregnancy on trunk range of motion when sitting and standing. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2002; 81:1011.

Ivell R. Endocrinology. This hormone has been relaxin’ too long! Science 2002; 295:637.

Marnach ML, Ramin KD, Ramsey PS, et al. Characterization of the relationship between joint laxity and maternal hormones in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101:331.

Wang SM, Dezinno P, Maranets I, et al. Low back pain during pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104:65.
Thorell E, Kristiansson P. Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012; 12:30.

Kovacs FM, Garcia E, Royuela A, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with low back pain and pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy: a multicenter study conducted in the Spanish National Health Service. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012; 37:1516.

Mogren IM, Pohjanen AI. Low back pain and pelvic pain during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2005; 30:983.
MacEvilly M, Buggy D. Back pain and pregnancy: a review. Pain 1996; 64:405.

Sanderson PL, Fraser RD. The influence of pregnancy on the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1996; 78:951.

Chan YL, Lam WW, Lau TK, et al. Back pain in pregnancy–magnetic resonance imaging correlation. Clin Radiol 2002; 57:1109.

Weinreb JC, Wolbarsht LB, Cohen JM, et al. Prevalence of lumbosacral intervertebral disk abnormalities on MR images in pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women. Radiology 1989; 170:125.

Scriven MW, Jones DA, McKnight L. Current concepts review.

Musculoskeletal considerations in pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995; 77:1465.

Heckman JD, Sassard R. Musculoskeletal considerations in pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1994; 76:1720.

Gregory DS, Seto CK, Wortley GC, Shugart CM. Acute lumbar disk pain: navigating evaluation and treatment choices. Am Fam Physician 2008; 78:835.

George JW, Skaggs CD, Thompson PA, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing a multimodal intervention and standard obstetrics care for low back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013; 208:295.e1.

Thomas IL, Nicklin J, Pollock H, Faulkner K. Evaluation of a maternity cushion (Ozzlo pillow) for backache and insomnia in late pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1989; 29:133.

Richards E, van Kessel G, Virgara R, Harris P. Does antenatal physical therapy for pregnant women with low back pain or pelvic pain improve functional outcomes? A systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012; 91:1038.

Kihlstrand M, Stenman B, Nilsson S, Axelsson O. Water-gymnastics reduced the intensity of back/low back pain in pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999; 78:180.

Granath AB, Hellgren MS, Gunnarsson RK. Water aerobics reduces sick leave due to low back pain during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2006; 35:465.

Kvorning N, Holmberg C, Grennert L, et al. Acupuncture relieves pelvic and low-back pain in late pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83:246.

Wedenberg K, Moen B, Norling A. A prospective randomized study comparing acupuncture with physiotherapy for low-back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000; 79:331.

Ee CC, Manheimer E, Pirotta MV, White AR. Acupuncture for pelvic and back pain in pregnancy: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198:254.

Pennick V, Liddle SD. Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 8:CD001139.

Easing back pain during pregnancy. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC, 1997.

Licciardone JC, Buchanan S, Hensel KL, et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment of back pain and related symptoms during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 202:43.e1.
Garmel SH, Guzelian GA, D’Alton JG, D’Alton ME. Lumbar disk disease in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89:821.

Ostgaard HC, Zetherström G, Roos-Hansson E. Back pain in relation to pregnancy: a 6-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1997; 22:2945.

Brynhildsen J, Hansson A, Persson A, Hammar M. Follow-up of patients with low back pain during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91:182.

Norén L, Ostgaard S, Johansson G, Ostgaard HC. Lumbar back and posterior pelvic pain during pregnancy: a 3-year follow-up. Eur Spine J 2002; 11:267.

To WW, Wong MW. Persistence of back pain symptoms after pregnancy and bone mineral density changes as measured by quantitative ultrasound–a two year longitudinal follow up study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2011; 12:55.

Gutke A, Josefsson A, Oberg B. Pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain in relation to postpartum depressive symptoms. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007; 32:1430.

Kähler CM, Högl B, Habeler R, et al. Management of respiratory deterioration in a pregnant patient with severe kyphoscoliosis by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002; 114:874.

Gamzu R, Shenhav M, Fainaru O, et al. Impact of pregnancy on respiratory capacity in women with muscular dystrophy and kyphoscoliosis. A case report. J Reprod Med 2002; 47:53.

Yim R, Kirschner K, Murphy E, et al. Successful pregnancy in a patient with spinal muscular atrophy and severe kyphoscoliosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 82:222.

Ko JY, Leffert LR. Clinical implications of neuraxial anesthesia in the parturient with scoliosis. Anesth Analg 2009; 109:1930.

Mens JM, Pool-Goudzwaard A, Stam HJ. Mobility of the pelvic joints in pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009; 64:200.

Brandon C, Jacobson JA, Low LK, et al. Pubic bone injuries in primiparous women: magnetic resonance imaging in detection and differential diagnosis of structural injury. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 39:444.

Miller JM, Brandon C, Jacobson JA, et al. MRI findings in patients considered high risk for pelvic floor injury studied serially after vaginal childbirth. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010; 195:786.

Albert HB, Godskesen M, Westergaard JG. Incidence of four syndromes of pregnancy-related pelvic joint pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2002; 27:2831.
Smith MW, Marcus PS, Wurtz LD. Orthopedic issues in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2008; 63:103.

Bjelland EK, Eskild A, Johansen R, Eberhard-Gran M. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: the impact of parity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 203:146.e1.
Bjelland EK, Eberhard-Gran M, Nielsen CS, Eskild A. Age at menarche and pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy: a population study of 74 973 women. BJOG 2011; 118:1646.

Bjelland EK, Stuge B, Engdahl B, Eberhard-Gran M. The effect of emotional distress on persistent pelvic girdle pain after delivery: a longitudinal population study. BJOG 2013; 120:32.

Bjelland EK, Stuge B, Vangen S, et al. Mode of delivery and persistence of pelvic girdle syndrome 6 months postpartum. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013; 208:298.e1.

Vleeming A, Albert HB, Ostgaard HC, et al. European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. Eur Spine J 2008; 17:794.

Fitzgerald CM, Neville CE, Mallinson T, et al. Pelvic floor muscle examination in female chronic pelvic pain. J Reprod Med 2011; 56:117.

Stuge B, Sætre K, Brækken IH. The association between pelvic floor muscle function and pelvic girdle pain–a matched case control 3D ultrasound study. Man Ther 2012; 17:150.

Ostgaard HC, Zetherström G, Roos-Hansson E. The posterior pelvic pain provocation test in pregnant women. Eur Spine J 1994; 3:258.

Mens JM, Huis In ‘t Veld YH, Pool-Goudzwaard A. The Active Straight Leg Raise test in lumbopelvic pain during pregnancy. Man Ther 2012; 17:364.

Mens JM, Vleeming A, Snijders CJ, et al. Validity of the active straight leg raise test for measuring disease severity in patients with posterior pelvic pain after pregnancy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2002; 27:196.

Ostgaard HC, Zetherström G, Roos-Hansson E, Svanberg B. Reduction of back and posterior pelvic pain in pregnancy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1994; 19:894.

Elden H, Hagberg H, Olsen MF, et al. Regression of pelvic girdle pain after delivery: follow-up of a randomised single blind controlled trial with different treatment modalities. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2008; 87:201.

Wang SM, Dezinno P, Lin EC, et al. Auricular acupuncture as a treatment for pregnant women who have low back and posterior pelvic pain: a pilot study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 201:271.e1.

Elden H, Ladfors L, Olsen MF, et al. Effects of acupuncture and stabilising exercises as adjunct to standard treatment in pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain: randomised single blind controlled trial. BMJ 2005; 330:761.

Richardson CA, Snijders CJ, Hides JA, et al. The relation between the transversus abdominis muscles, sacroiliac joint mechanics, and low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2002; 27:399.

Richardson CA, Jull GA. Muscle control-pain control. What exercises would you prescribe? Man Ther 1995; 1:2.

Stuge B, Laerum E, Kirkesola G, Vøllestad N. The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilizing exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2004; 29:351.
Vøllestad NK, Stuge B. Prognostic factors for recovery from postpartum pelvic girdle pain. Eur Spine J 2009; 18:718.

Torstensson T, Lindgren A, Kristiansson P. Corticosteroid injection treatment to the ischiadic spine reduced pain in women with long-lasting sacral low back pain with onset during pregnancy: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009; 34:2254.

Snow RE, Neubert AG. Peripartum pubic symphysis separation: a case series and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1997; 52:438.

Robinson HS, Eskild A, Heiberg E, Eberhard-Gran M. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: the impact on function. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2006; 85:160.

Parker JM, Bhattacharjee M. Images in clinical medicine. Peripartum diastasis of the symphysis pubis. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:1886.

Hansen A, Jensen DV, Larsen EC, et al. Postpartum pelvic pain–the “pelvic joint syndrome”: a follow-up study with special reference to diagnostic methods. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2005; 84:170.

Jain N, Sternberg LB. Symphyseal separation. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:1229.

Kharrazi FD, Rodgers WB, Kennedy JG, Lhowe DW. Parturition-induced pelvic dislocation: a report of four cases. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11:277.

Rommens PM. Internal fixation in postpartum symphysis pubis rupture: report of three cases. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11:273.

Culligan P, Hill S, Heit M. Rupture of the symphysis pubis during vaginal delivery followed by two subsequent uneventful pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100:1114.

Pellicci PM, Zolla-Pazner S, Rabhan WN, Wilson PD Jr. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy. Report of three cases. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1984; :59.

Montella BJ, Nunley JA, Urbaniak JR. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999; 81:790.

Lose G, Lindholm P. Transient painful osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1986; 24:13.

Schapira D, Braun Moscovici Y, Gutierrez G, Nahir AM. Severe transient osteoporosis of the hip during pregnancy. Successful treatment with intravenous biphosphonates. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2003; 21:107.

Brooks AG, Domb BG. Acetabular labral tear and postpartum hip pain. Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120:1093.

Dumas GA, Reid JG. Laxity of knee cruciate ligaments during pregnancy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1997; 26:2.

Ritchie JR. Orthopedic considerations during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2003; 46:456.

Young GL, Jewell D. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; :CD000121.

Dahle LO, Berg G, Hammar M, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173:175.

Schned ES. DeQuervain tenosynovitis in pregnant and postpartum women. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 68:411.

Vullo VJ, Richardson JK, Hurvitz EA. Hip, knee, and foot pain during pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Fam Pract 1996; 43:63.
Nyska M, Sofer D, Porat A, et al. Planter foot pressures in pregnant women. Isr J Med Sci 1997; 33:139.

Bohemen EK, Gendi NS. Flatfeet in pregnancy. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35:396.

Lidder S, Lang KJ, Lee HJ, et al. Bilateral hip fractures associated with transient osteoporosis of pregnancy. J R Army Med Corps 2011; 157:176.

Maliha G, Morgan J, Vrahas M. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy. Injury 2012; 43:1237.

Kovacs CS. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2011; 40:795.
Baitner AC, Bernstein AD, Jazrawi AJ, et al. Spontaneous rib fracture during pregnancy. A case report and review of the literature. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 2000; 59:163.

Even-Tov I, Yedwab GA, Persitz E, David MP. Stress fracture of ribs in late pregnancy. Int Surg 1979; 64:85.

Scott EM, Scott BB. Painful rib syndrome–a review of 76 cases. Gut 1993; 34:1006.

Fundamentals of Hot Stone Massage

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Alison Trulock Hot Stone Massage: The Essential Guide to Hot Stone and Aromatherapy Massage Sterling Publishing November 4, 2008

M. V. Hurley et al., Non-exercise physical therapies for musculoskeletal conditions, Best Practice & Research, Clinical Rheumatology, 2008.? 1C

Brosseau L., Yonge K.A., Welch V. et al., Thermotherapy for treatment of osteoarthritis, the Cochrane library, 2003. 1A

Petrofsky J., Berk L., Lee H., Moist heat or dry heat delayed onset muscle soreness, Journal of clinical medicine research, 2013. 2B

Scott F. Nadler, DO, FACSM, Kurt Weingand, PhD, DVM, and Roger J. Kruse, MD; The Physiologic Basis and Clinical Applications of Cryotherapy and Thermotherapy for the Pain Practitioner, pain physician, 2004. 1A

D. L. Kellogg Jr., In vivo mechanisms of cutaneous vasodilation and vasoconstriction in humans during thermoregulatory challenges, the American Physiological Society, 2006. 3A

Hendee W.R., Physics of Thermal Therapy, Fundamentals and Clinical applications, By Taylor and Francis group, 2013.

Heinrichs K., Textbook of medical physiology, Philadelphia, 1986. (chapter 16: superficial thermal modalities).

Bleakley C.,McDonough S.,MacAuley D., The Use of Ice in the Treatment of Acute Soft-Tissue Injury: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials, The American Journal of Sports Medicine; 2004. 1A

Tricia J. Hubbard et al., Does Cryotherapy Improve Outcomes With Soft Tissue Injury? Journal of Athletic Training, 2004. 1A

Ernst E., Fialka V., Ice freezes pain? A review of the clinical effectiveness of analgesic cold therapy, J pain symptoms manage, 1994. 5

11.0 11.1 Amin A. Algafly, Keith P. George, The effect of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity, pain threshold and pain tolerance, Br J Sports Med, 2007. 3B

12.0 12.1 Choi YJ et al. Therapeutic effects and immunomodulation of suanbo mineral water therapy in a murine model atopic dermatitis. 1B

Hiroharu K., Kiichiro T., Effectiveness of Aquatic Exercise and Balneotherapy: A Summary of Systematic Reviews Based on Randomized Controlled Trials of Water Immersion Therapies, Journal of epidemiology, 2010. 1A

Eversden L, Maggs F, Nightingale P, Jobanputra P., A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of hydrotherapy and land exercises on overall well-being and quality of life in rheumatoid arthritis, BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, 2007. 2A

Lacy A. Holowatz et al., Mechanisms of acetylcholine-mediated vasodilatation in young and aged human skin, The Physiological Society, 2005. 3B

Swenson C et al. Cryotherapy in sports medicine. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 1996 Aug6(4) 1B

17.0 17.1 17.2 Kathleen A. Sluka, PhD, PT, Michelle R. Christy, MPT, Wendy L. Peterson, MPT, Staci L. Rudd, MPT, Stacie M. Troy, MPT, Reduction of pain-related behaviors with either cold or heat treatment in an animal model of acute arthritis, Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, March 1999. 3B

18.0 18.1 Fahey T.D., Athletic training: principles and practice, Mayfield.

19.0 19.1 19.2 Oosterveld F.G.J., Rasker J.J., Effects of local heat and cold treatment on surface and articular temperature of arthritic knees, American college of rheumatology, 1994. 1B

William E. Prentice, An Electromyographic Analysis of the Effectiveness of Heat or Cold and Stretching for Inducing Relaxation in Injured Muscle, The journal of orthopaedic and sports physical therapy, 1982. 1B

Steven E. Peres, David O. Draper, Kenneth L. Knight, Mark D. Ricard, Pulsed shortwave diathermy and prolonged long-duration stretching increase dorsiflexion range of motion more than identical stretching without diathermy, Journal of Athletic Training, 2003. 2B
22.0 22.1 22.2 Oosterveld F.G., Rasker J.J., Treating arthritis with locally applied heat or cold, semin Arthritis Rheum., 1994. 5

Chris Bleakley, Suzanne McDonough and Domhnall MacAuley; The Use of Ice in the TreatmentfckLRof Acute Soft-Tissue Injury: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials; The American Journal of Sports Medicine; 2004; 32 (1); 251-261 [A1]

Joseph H. Dykstra et al.; Comparisons of Cubed Ice, Crushed Ice, and Wetted Ice on Intramuscular and Surface Temperature Changes; Journal of Athletic Training; 2009;44(2); 136–141 [A2]

Massage for the Laboring Woman

Karzel RP, Freedman MJ. Orthopedic injuries in pregnancy. In: in Pregnancy, 2nd ed, Artal R, Wiswell RA, Drinkwater BL (Eds), Lippencott, Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore 1991.

Foti T, Davids JR, Bagley A. A biomechanical analysis of gait during pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2000; 82:625.

Gilleard W, Crosbie J, Smith R. Effect of pregnancy on trunk range of motion when sitting and standing. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2002; 81:1011.

Ivell R. Endocrinology. This hormone has been relaxin’ too long! Science 2002; 295:637.

Marnach ML, Ramin KD, Ramsey PS, et al. Characterization of the relationship between joint laxity and maternal hormones in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2003; 101:331.

Wang SM, Dezinno P, Maranets I, et al. Low back pain during pregnancy: prevalence, risk factors, and outcomes. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 104:65.
Thorell E, Kristiansson P. Pregnancy related back pain, is it related to aerobic fitness? A longitudinal cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth 2012; 12:30.

Kovacs FM, Garcia E, Royuela A, et al. Prevalence and factors associated with low back pain and pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy: a multicenter study conducted in the Spanish National Health Service. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2012; 37:1516.

Mogren IM, Pohjanen AI. Low back pain and pelvic pain during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2005; 30:983.
MacEvilly M, Buggy D. Back pain and pregnancy: a review. Pain 1996; 64:405.

Sanderson PL, Fraser RD. The influence of pregnancy on the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis. J Bone Joint Surg Br 1996; 78:951.

Chan YL, Lam WW, Lau TK, et al. Back pain in pregnancy–magnetic resonance imaging correlation. Clin Radiol 2002; 57:1109.

Weinreb JC, Wolbarsht LB, Cohen JM, et al. Prevalence of lumbosacral intervertebral disk abnormalities on MR images in pregnant and asymptomatic nonpregnant women. Radiology 1989; 170:125.

Scriven MW, Jones DA, McKnight L. Current concepts review. Musculoskeletal considerations in pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1995; 77:1465.

Heckman JD, Sassard R. Musculoskeletal considerations in pregnancy. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1994; 76:1720.

Gregory DS, Seto CK, Wortley GC, Shugart CM. Acute lumbar disk pain: navigating evaluation and treatment choices. Am Fam Physician 2008; 78:835.

George JW, Skaggs CD, Thompson PA, et al. A randomized controlled trial comparing a multimodal intervention and standard obstetrics care for low back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013; 208:295.e1.

Thomas IL, Nicklin J, Pollock H, Faulkner K. Evaluation of a maternity cushion (Ozzlo pillow) for backache and insomnia in late pregnancy. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol 1989; 29:133.

Richards E, van Kessel G, Virgara R, Harris P. Does antenatal physical therapy for pregnant women with low back pain or pelvic pain improve functional outcomes? A systematic review. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2012; 91:1038.

Kihlstrand M, Stenman B, Nilsson S, Axelsson O. Water-gymnastics reduced the intensity of back/low back pain in pregnant women. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 1999; 78:180.

Granath AB, Hellgren MS, Gunnarsson RK. Water aerobics reduces sick leave due to low back pain during pregnancy. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs 2006; 35:465.

Kvorning N, Holmberg C, Grennert L, et al. Acupuncture relieves pelvic and low-back pain in late pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2004; 83:246.

Wedenberg K, Moen B, Norling A. A prospective randomized study comparing acupuncture with physiotherapy for low-back and pelvic pain in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2000; 79:331.

Ee CC, Manheimer E, Pirotta MV, White AR. Acupuncture for pelvic and back pain in pregnancy: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2008; 198:254.

Pennick V, Liddle SD. Interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; 8:CD001139.
Easing back pain during pregnancy. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Washington, DC, 1997.

Licciardone JC, Buchanan S, Hensel KL, et al. Osteopathic manipulative treatment of back pain and related symptoms during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 202:43.e1.
Garmel SH, Guzelian GA, D’Alton JG, D’Alton ME. Lumbar disk disease in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1997; 89:821.

Ostgaard HC, Zetherström G, Roos-Hansson E. Back pain in relation to pregnancy: a 6-year follow-up. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1997; 22:2945.

Brynhildsen J, Hansson A, Persson A, Hammar M. Follow-up of patients with low back pain during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 1998; 91:182.
Norén L, Ostgaard S, Johansson G, Ostgaard HC. Lumbar back and posterior pelvic pain during pregnancy: a 3-year follow-up. Eur Spine J 2002; 11:267.

To WW, Wong MW. Persistence of back pain symptoms after pregnancy and bone mineral density changes as measured by quantitative ultrasound–a two year longitudinal follow up study. BMC Musculoskelet Disord 2011; 12:55.

Gutke A, Josefsson A, Oberg B. Pelvic girdle pain and lumbar pain in relation to postpartum depressive symptoms. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2007; 32:1430.

Kähler CM, Högl B, Habeler R, et al. Management of respiratory deterioration in a pregnant patient with severe kyphoscoliosis by non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Wien Klin Wochenschr 2002; 114:874.

Gamzu R, Shenhav M, Fainaru O, et al. Impact of pregnancy on respiratory capacity in women with muscular dystrophy and kyphoscoliosis. A case report. J Reprod Med 2002; 47:53.
Yim R, Kirschner K, Murphy E, et al. Successful pregnancy in a patient with spinal muscular atrophy and severe kyphoscoliosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 2003; 82:222.

Ko JY, Leffert LR. Clinical implications of neuraxial anesthesia in the parturient with scoliosis. Anesth Analg 2009; 109:1930.
Mens JM, Pool-Goudzwaard A, Stam HJ. Mobility of the pelvic joints in pregnancy-related lumbopelvic pain: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2009; 64:200.

Brandon C, Jacobson JA, Low LK, et al. Pubic bone injuries in primiparous women: magnetic resonance imaging in detection and differential diagnosis of structural injury. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2012; 39:444.

Miller JM, Brandon C, Jacobson JA, et al. MRI findings in patients considered high risk for pelvic floor injury studied serially after vaginal childbirth. AJR Am J Roentgenol 2010; 195:786.

Albert HB, Godskesen M, Westergaard JG. Incidence of four syndromes of pregnancy-related pelvic joint pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2002; 27:2831.
Smith MW, Marcus PS, Wurtz LD. Orthopedic issues in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 2008; 63:103.

Bjelland EK, Eskild A, Johansen R, Eberhard-Gran M. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: the impact of parity. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2010; 203:146.e1.
Bjelland EK, Eberhard-Gran M, Nielsen CS, Eskild A. Age at menarche and pelvic girdle syndrome in pregnancy: a population study of 74 973 women. BJOG 2011; 118:1646.

Bjelland EK, Stuge B, Engdahl B, Eberhard-Gran M. The effect of emotional distress on persistent pelvic girdle pain after delivery: a longitudinal population study. BJOG 2013; 120:32.

Bjelland EK, Stuge B, Vangen S, et al. Mode of delivery and persistence of pelvic girdle syndrome 6 months postpartum. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013; 208:298.e1.

Vleeming A, Albert HB, Ostgaard HC, et al. European guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pelvic girdle pain. Eur Spine J 2008; 17:794.
Fitzgerald CM, Neville CE, Mallinson T, et al. Pelvic floor muscle examination in female chronic pelvic pain. J Reprod Med 2011; 56:117.
Stuge B, Sætre K, Brækken IH. The association between pelvic floor muscle function and pelvic girdle pain–a matched case control 3D ultrasound study. Man Ther 2012; 17:150.

Ostgaard HC, Zetherström G, Roos-Hansson E. The posterior pelvic pain provocation test in pregnant women. Eur Spine J 1994; 3:258.

Mens JM, Huis In ‘t Veld YH, Pool-Goudzwaard A. The Active Straight Leg Raise test in lumbopelvic pain during pregnancy. Man Ther 2012; 17:364.

Mens JM, Vleeming A, Snijders CJ, et al. Validity of the active straight leg raise test for measuring disease severity in patients with posterior pelvic pain after pregnancy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2002; 27:196.

Ostgaard HC, Zetherström G, Roos-Hansson E, Svanberg B. Reduction of back and posterior pelvic pain in pregnancy. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 1994; 19:894.

Elden H, Hagberg H, Olsen MF, et al. Regression of pelvic girdle pain after delivery: follow-up of a randomised single blind controlled trial with different treatment modalities. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2008; 87:201.

Wang SM, Dezinno P, Lin EC, et al. Auricular acupuncture as a treatment for pregnant women who have low back and posterior pelvic pain: a pilot study. Am J Obstet Gynecol 2009; 201:271.e1.

Elden H, Ladfors L, Olsen MF, et al. Effects of acupuncture and stabilising exercises as adjunct to standard treatment in pregnant women with pelvic girdle pain: randomised single blind controlled trial. BMJ 2005; 330:761.
Richardson CA, Snijders CJ, Hides JA, et al. The relation between the transversus abdominis muscles, sacroiliac joint mechanics, and low back pain. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2002; 27:399.

Richardson CA, Jull GA. Muscle control-pain control. What exercises would you prescribe? Man Ther 1995; 1:2.

Stuge B, Laerum E, Kirkesola G, Vøllestad N. The efficacy of a treatment program focusing on specific stabilizing exercises for pelvic girdle pain after pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2004; 29:351.

Vøllestad NK, Stuge B. Prognostic factors for recovery from postpartum pelvic girdle pain. Eur Spine J 2009; 18:718.

Torstensson T, Lindgren A, Kristiansson P. Corticosteroid injection treatment to the ischiadic spine reduced pain in women with long-lasting sacral low back pain with onset during pregnancy: a randomized, double blind, controlled trial. Spine (Phila Pa 1976) 2009; 34:2254.

Snow RE, Neubert AG. Peripartum pubic symphysis separation: a case series and review of the literature. Obstet Gynecol Surv 1997; 52:438.
Robinson HS, Eskild A, Heiberg E, Eberhard-Gran M. Pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: the impact on function. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2006; 85:160.

Parker JM, Bhattacharjee M. Images in clinical medicine. Peripartum diastasis of the symphysis pubis. N Engl J Med 2009; 361:1886.
Hansen A, Jensen DV, Larsen EC, et al. Postpartum pelvic pain–the “pelvic joint syndrome”: a follow-up study with special reference to diagnostic methods. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 2005; 84:170.
Jain N, Sternberg LB. Symphyseal separation. Obstet Gynecol 2005; 105:1229.

Kharrazi FD, Rodgers WB, Kennedy JG, Lhowe DW. Parturition-induced pelvic dislocation: a report of four cases. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11:277.
Rommens PM. Internal fixation in postpartum symphysis pubis rupture: report of three cases. J Orthop Trauma 1997; 11:273.
Culligan P, Hill S, Heit M. Rupture of the symphysis pubis during vaginal delivery followed by two subsequent uneventful pregnancies. Obstet Gynecol 2002; 100:1114.

Pellicci PM, Zolla-Pazner S, Rabhan WN, Wilson PD Jr. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy. Report of three cases. Clin Orthop Relat Res 1984; :59.

Montella BJ, Nunley JA, Urbaniak JR. Osteonecrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy. A preliminary report. J Bone Joint Surg Am 1999; 81:790.

Lose G, Lindholm P. Transient painful osteoporosis of the hip in pregnancy. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 1986; 24:13.

Schapira D, Braun Moscovici Y, Gutierrez G, Nahir AM. Severe transient osteoporosis of the hip during pregnancy. Successful treatment with intravenous biphosphonates. Clin Exp Rheumatol 2003; 21:107.
Brooks AG, Domb BG. Acetabular labral tear and postpartum hip pain. Obstet Gynecol 2012; 120:1093.

Dumas GA, Reid JG. Laxity of knee cruciate ligaments during pregnancy. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 1997; 26:2.

Ritchie JR. Orthopedic considerations during pregnancy. Clin Obstet Gynecol 2003; 46:456.

Young GL, Jewell D. Interventions for leg cramps in pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002; :CD000121.

Dahle LO, Berg G, Hammar M, et al. The effect of oral magnesium substitution on pregnancy-induced leg cramps. Am J Obstet Gynecol 1995; 173:175.

Schned ES. DeQuervain tenosynovitis in pregnant and postpartum women. Obstet Gynecol 1986; 68:411.

Vullo VJ, Richardson JK, Hurvitz EA. Hip, knee, and foot pain during pregnancy and the postpartum period. J Fam Pract 1996; 43:63.
Nyska M, Sofer D, Porat A, et al. Planter foot pressures in pregnant women. Isr J Med Sci 1997; 33:139.

Bohemen EK, Gendi NS. Flatfeet in pregnancy. Br J Rheumatol 1996; 35:396.
Lidder S, Lang KJ, Lee HJ, et al. Bilateral hip fractures associated with transient osteoporosis of pregnancy. J R Army Med Corps 2011; 157:176.
Maliha G, Morgan J, Vrahas M. Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy. Injury 2012; 43:1237.

Kovacs CS. Calcium and bone metabolism disorders during pregnancy and lactation. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 2011; 40:795.

Baitner AC, Bernstein AD, Jazrawi AJ, et al. Spontaneous rib fracture during pregnancy. A case report and review of the literature. Bull Hosp Jt Dis 2000; 59:163.

Even-Tov I, Yedwab GA, Persitz E, David MP. Stress fracture of ribs in late pregnancy. Int Surg 1979; 64:85.

Scott EM, Scott BB. Painful rib syndrome–a review of 76 cases. Gut 1993; 34:1006.

Field, T. (1999). Pregnant Women Benefit From Massage Therapy. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mar;20(1):31-8.

Field, T. (2004). Massage Therapy Effects on Depressed Pregnant Women. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Jun;25(2):115-22.

Jordan, Kate, (2009), Post-partum Massage—What a Massage Therapist Should Know, Massage Magazine, Apr Noble, Elizabeth, (2004) Essential Exercises for the Childbearing Year: A Guide to Health and Comfort Before and After Your Baby is Born, 4th Edition, New Life Images

Osborne, Carole. (2012). Pre- and Perinatal Massage Therapy: A Comprehensive Guide to Prenatal, Labor, and Postpartum Practice, 2nd Edition, Wolters Klower,/ Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins (2011)

Research: Massage Benefits Postpartum Women, Nov http://www.massagemag.com/News/massage-news.php?id=11806&catid=1&title=research-massage-benefits-postpartum-women# Article Accessed Online 6/6/11.

Brockington IF, Fraser C, & Wilson D. (2006). The postpartum bonding questionnaire: a validation. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 9, 233–42.

Brockington IF, Oates J, George S, Turner D, Vostanis P, Sullivan M, Loh C, & Murdoch C. (2001). A screening questionnaire for mother-infant bonding disorders. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 3, 133–40.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013a). Summary of recommendations for adult immunization. Retrieved from http://www.immunize.org/catg.d/p2011.pdf.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2013b). Intimate partner violence during pregnancy: a guide for clinicians. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/violence/IntimatePartnerViolence/.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2011). The national intimate partner and sexual violence survey: 2010 summary report. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/NISVS_Executive_Summary-a.pdf.

DeFrances CJ, Cullen KA, & Kozak LJ. (2007). National hospital discharge survey: 2005 annual summary with detailed diagnosis and procedure data. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat, 13(165).

Driscoll J. (2006). Postpartum depression: how nurses can identify and care for clients grappling with this disorder. AWHONN Lifelines, 10(5), 400–9.

Hall M, DeFrances C, Williams S, Golosinskiy A, & Schwartzman A. (2010). National hospital discharge survey: 2007 summary. National Center for Health Statistics (Oct.), 29.

Hastings-Tolsma M, Vincent D, Emeis C, Francisco T. (2007). Protecting the perineum. American Journal of Maternal/Child Nursing, 32(3), 158–64.

Joanna Briggs Institute. (2009). The management of nipple pain and/or trauma associated with breastfeeding. Best Practice, 12(4), 17–20.
Leifer G. (2005). Maternity nursing: an introductory text (9th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.

Mercer RT. (2004). Becoming a mother versus maternal role attainment. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 36(3), 226–32.

Moldenhauer J. (2013). Postpartum depression. Merck manual for health care professionals. Retrieved from http://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology_and_obstetrics/postpartum_care_and_associated_disorders/postpartum_depression.html.

Murray S & McKinney E. (2010). Foundations of maternal-newborn and women’s health nursing (5th ed.). St. Louis: Elsevier.

Thompson MP, Basile KC, Hertz MF, Sitterle D. (2006). Measuring intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration: a compendium of assessment tools. Atlanta (GA):

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, 2006. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncipc/pub-res/IPV_Compendium.pdf.

Varney H, Kriebs JM, & Gegor CL. (2004). Varney’s midwifery. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Pub.

Watts N. (2004). Screening for domestic violence: a team approach for maternal-newborn nurses. AWOHNN Lifelines, 8(3), 210–19.

Kinnaman, Gary & Jacobs, Richard. Seeing in the Dark. Michigan: Baker Publing Group, 2006.

“Perinatal Depression: Prevalence, Screening Accuracy, and Screening Outcomes”. Agency for Health Care Research and Quality.

Cox JL, Holden JM, Sagovsky R (June 1987). “Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale”. Br J Psychiatry 150 (6): 782–6. doi:10.1192/bjp.150.6.782. PMID 3651732.

Paulson, James F. (2010). “Focusing on depression in expectant and new fathers: prenatal and postpartum depression not limited to mothers”. Psychiatry Times 27 (2).

The Boston Women’s Health Book Collective: Our Bodies Ourselves, pages 489–491, New York: Touchstone Book, 2005

Morof D, Barrett G, Peacock J, Victor CR, Manyonda I (December 2003). “Postnatal depression and sexual health after childbirth”. Obstet Gynecol 102 (6): 1318–25. doi:10.1016/j.obstetgynecol.2003.08.020. PMID 14662221.

Miller LJ (February 2002). “Postpartum depression”. JAMA 287 (6): 762–5. doi:10.1001/jama.287.6.762. PMID 11851544.

Postpartum Depression from Pregnancy Guide, by Peter J. Chen, at Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. Reviewed last on: 10/22/2008

Canadian Mental Health Association > Post Partum Depression Retrieved on June 13, 2010

Spinelli MG (April 2009). “Postpartum psychosis: detection of risk and management”. Am J Psychiatry 166 (4): 405–8.
doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08121899. PMID 19339365.

Field, T (Feb 2010). “Postpartum depression effects on early interactions, parenting, and safety practices: A review”. Infant Behavior and Development. 33, 1-6.

Almeida A, Merminod G, Schechter DS (2009). “Mothers with severe psychiatric illness and their newborns: a hospital-based model of perinatal consultation”. Journal of ZERO-TO-THREE: National Center for Infants, Toddlers, and Families 29 (5): 40–46.

Beard JL, Hendricks MK, Perez EM, et al. (February 2005). “Maternal iron deficiency anemia affects postpartum emotions and cognition”. J. Nutr. 135 (2): 267–72. PMID 15671224.

Soares CN, Zitek B (July 2008). “Reproductive hormone sensitivity and risk for depression across the female life cycle: a continuum of vulnerability?”. J Psychiatry Neurosci 33 (4): 331–43. PMC 2440795. PMID 18592034.

Goodman JH (January 2004). “Paternal postpartum depression, its relationship to maternal postpartum depression, and implications for family health”. J Adv Nurs 45 (1): 26–35. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2648.2003.02857.x. PMID 14675298.

Nielsen Forman D, Videbech P, Hedegaard M, Dalby Salvig J, Secher NJ (October 2000). “Postpartum depression: identification of women at risk”. BJOG 107 (10): 1210–7. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2000.tb11609.x. PMID 11028570.

Rich-Edwards JW, Mohllajee AP, Kleinman K, et al. (May 2008). “Elevated midpregnancy corticotropin-releasing hormone is associated with prenatal, but not postpartum, maternal depression”. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 93 (5): 1946–51. doi:10.1210/jc.2007-2535. PMC 2386278. PMID 18303075.

McCoy SJ, Beal JM, Shipman SB, Payton ME, Watson GH (April 2006). “Risk factors for postpartum depression: a retrospective investigation at 4-weeks postnatal and a review of the literature”. J Am Osteopath Assoc 106 (4): 193–8. PMID 16627773.

Beck CT (1996). “A meta-analysis of the relationship between postpartum depression and infant temperament”. Nurs Res 45 (4): 225–30. doi:10.1097/00006199-199607000-00006. PMID 8700656.

The causal role of lack of social support in PPD is strongly suggested by several studies, including O’Hara 1985, Field et al. 1985; and Gotlib et al. 1991.

Stern G, Kruckman L (1983). “Multi-disciplinary perspectives on post-partum depression: an anthropological critique”. Soc Sci Med 17 (15): 1027–41. doi:10.1016/0277-9536(83)90408-2. PMID 6623110.

Segre, Lisa S.; O’Hara, Michael W.; Losch, Mary E. (2006). “Race/ethnicity and perinatal depressed mood”. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology 24 (2): 99–106. doi:10.1080/02646830600643908.

Howell EA, Mora P, Leventhal H (March 2006). “Correlates of early postpartum depressive symptoms”. Matern Child Health J 10 (2): 149–57. doi:10.1007/s10995-005-0048-9. PMC 1592250. PMID 16341910.

Ross LE, Steele L, Goldfinger C, Strike C (2007). “Perinatal depressive symptomatology among lesbian and bisexual women”. Arch Womens Ment Health 10 (2): 53–9. doi:10.1007/s00737-007-0168-x. PMID 17262172.

Ross LE (2005). “Perinatal mental health in lesbian mothers: a review of potential risk and protective factors”. Women Health 41 (3): 113–28. doi:10.1300/J013v41n03_07. PMID 15970579.

Hagen, Edward H (1999). “The Functions of Postpartum Depression”. Evolution and Human Behavior 20 (5): 325–59. doi:10.1016/S1090-5138(99)00016-1.

Kruckman, Laurence (1999). “Rituals as Prevention: The Case of Postpartum Depression”. In Heinze, Ruth-Inge. The Nature and Function of Rituals: Fire from Heaven. Greenwood Publishing. pp. 213–28. ISBN 978-0-89789-663-4.

Kruckman, L. “A Renewed Call for a Biocultural Understanding of Postpartum Depression Etiology,” paper presented at the Max Planck Institute International Symposium, “Postpartum Dysphoria & Depression: Anthropological, Ethnopsychiatric & Evolutionary Dimensions” Reimers Stiftung, Bad Homburg, Germany, 2000.

Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Campbell, Susan B.; Matias, Reinaldo; Hopkins, Joyce (1990). “Face-to-face interactions of postpartum depressed and nondepressed mother-infant pairs at 2 months”. Developmental Psychology 26: 15–23. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.26.1.15.

Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Campbell, Susan B.; Ross, Shelley (2009). “Infant response in the still-face paradigm at 6 months predicts avoidant and secure attachment at 12 months”. Development and Psychopathology 3 (4): 367–76. doi:10.1017/S0954579400007574.

Field, Tiffany; Sandberg, David; Garcia, Robert; Vega-Lahr, Nitza; Goldstein, Sheri; Guy, Lisa (1985). “Pregnancy problems, postpartum depression, and early mother€“infant interactions”. Developmental Psychology 21 (6): 1152–6. doi:10.1037/0012-1649.21.6.1152.

Fowles, Eileen R. (1998). “The Relationship Between Maternal Role Attainment and Postpartum Depression”. Health Care for Women International 19 (1): 83–94. doi:10.1080/073993398246601. PMID 9479097.

Hoffman, Yonit; Drotar, Dennis (1991). “The impact of postpartum depressed mood on mother-infant interaction: Like mother like baby?”. Infant Mental Health Journal 12: 65–80. doi:10.1002/1097-0355(199121)12:1<65::AID-IMHJ2280120107>3.0.CO;2-T.

Murray, Lynne (1991). “Intersubjectivity, object relations theory, and empirical evidence from mother-infant interactions”. Infant Mental Health Journal 12 (3): 219–32. doi:10.1002/1097-0355(199123)12:3<219::AID-IMHJ2280120308>3.0.CO;2-G.

Murray, Lynne; Cooper, Peter J. (1996). “The impact of postpartum depression on child development”. International Review of Psychiatry 8: 55–63. doi:10.3109/09540269609037817.

Hagen EH, Barrett HC (March 2007). “Perinatal sadness among Shuar women: support for an evolutionary theory of psychic pain”. Med Anthropol Q 21 (1): 22–40. doi:10.1525/maq.2007.21.1.22. PMID 17405696.

Dennis CL, Dowswell T (2013). Dennis, Cindy-Lee, ed. “Psychosocial and psychological interventions for preventing postpartum depression”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: CD001134. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001134.pub3. PMID 23450532.

PubMed Health. “Preventing postnatal depression”. National Center for Biotechnology Information. Retrieved 30 May 2013.

“Providers miss opportunities to prevent depression in and discuss birth control with women with unplanned pregnancies”. Research Activities (Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality) (372): 15. August 2011.

Dennis, CL; Hodnett, E (Oct 17, 2007). “Psychosocial and psychological interventions for treating postpartum depression.”. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews (4): CD006116. PMID 17943888.

Molyneaux, E; Howard, LM; McGeown, HR; Karia, AM; Trevillion, K (Sep 11, 2014). “Antidepressant treatment for postnatal depression.”. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 9: CD002018. PMID 25211400.

Dennis, CL; Dowswell, T (Jul 31, 2013). “Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression.”. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 7: CD006795. PMID 23904069.

Ali NS, Ali BS, Azam IS (2009). “Post partum anxiety and depression in peri-urban communities of Karachi, Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study”. BMC Public Health 9: 384. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-384. PMC 2768706. PMID 19821971.

McElroy, Ann; Townsend, Patricia K., eds. (2009). “Culture, Ecology, and Reproduction”. Medical Anthropology in Ecological Perspective. pp. 217–66. ISBN 978-0-7867-2740-7.

Klainin P, Arthur DG (October 2009). “Postpartum depression in Asian cultures: a literature review”. Int J Nurs Stud 46 (10): 1355–73. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2009.02.012. PMID 19327773.

Ramchandani, Paul; Stein, Alan; Evans, Jonathan; O’Connor, Thomas G. (2005). “Paternal depression in the postnatal period and child development: a prospective population study”. The Lancet.

Paulson, James F.; Bazemore, Sharnail D. (May 19, 2010). “Prenatal and Postpartum Depression in Fathers and Its Association With Maternal Depression: A Meta-analysis”. Journal of the American Medical Association.

Sehran, Nilufer; Ege, Emel; Ayranci, Unal; Kosgeroglu, Nedime (2011). “Prevalence of postpartum depression in mothers and fathers and its correlates”. Journal of Clinical Nursing.

Fetherston C: Mastitis in lactating women: physiology or pathology? Breastfeeding Review 2001, 9(1):5-12.

Humenick S and Hill P: Breast engorgement: patterns and selected outcomes, J Hum Lact 1994, 10(2):79-86.

Lawrence R: Breastfeeding: A Guide for the Medical Profession 6th ed. Elsevier Mosby:Philadelphia,PA. 2005.

Neville M: Anatomy and Physiology of Lactations, in Ped Clin N America 2001, 48(1):13-34.

Snowden H, Renfrew M, Woolridge M: Treatments for breast engorgement during lactation (Cochrane Review). In: The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2003. Chichester, UK; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Successful Breastfeeding 3rd ed. Royal College of Midwives, Churchill Livingston, London, 2002.

Cunningham G, Levano KJ, Gilstrap LC, et al. Williams Obstetrics. 22nd ed. McGraw-Hill; 2005.

Yokoe DS, Christiansen CL, Johnson R, Sandu KE, et al. Epidemiology of and Surveillance for Postpartum Infectious. Emerg Infect Dis. Sep-Oct 2001;7(5):837-41. [Medline].

Adair FL. The American Committee of Maternal Welfare, Inc: The Chairman’s Address. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1935;30:868.

Chang J, Elam-Evans LD, Berg CJ, Herndon J, Flowers L, Seed KA, et al. Pregnancy-related mortality surveillance–United States, 1991–1999. MMWR Surveill Summ. Feb 21 2003;52(2):1-8. [Medline].

Schwartz MA, Wang CC, Eckert LO, Critchlow CW. Risk factors for urinary tract infection in the postpartum period. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Sep 1999;181(3):547-53. [Medline].

Monif GR, Baker DA. Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 6th ed. Informa HealthCare; 2008.

Atterbury JL, Groome LJ, Baker SL, Ross EL, Hoff C. Hospital readmission for postpartum endometritis. J Matern Fetal Med. Sep-Oct 1998;7(5):250-4. [Medline].

Newton ER, Prihoda TJ, Gibbs RS. A clinical and microbiologic analysis of risk factors for puerperal endometritis. Obstet Gynecol. Mar 1990;75(3 Pt 1):402-6. [Medline].

Maharaj D. Puerperal Pyrexia: a review. Part II. Obstet Gynecol Surv. Jun 2007;62(6):400-6. [Medline].

Garcia J, Aboujaoude R, Apuzzio J, Alvarez JR. Septic pelvic thrombophlebitis: diagnosis and management. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2006;2006:15614. [Medline].

Chaim W, Burstein E. Postpartum infection treatments: a review. Expert Opin Pharmacother. Aug 2003;4(8):1297-313. [Medline].

French LM, Smaill FM. Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Oct 2004;18(4):CD001067. [Medline].

[Guideline] American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Drugs. Transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics. Sep 2001;108(3):776-89. [Medline].

Kaiser J, McPherson V, Kaufman L, Huber T. Clinical inquiries. Which UTI therapies are safe and effective during breastfeeding?. J Fam Pract. Mar 2007;56(3):225-8. [Medline].

Wagenlehner FM, Weidner W, Naber KG. An update on uncomplicated urinary tract infections in women. Curr Opin Urol. Jul 2009;19(4):368-74. [Medline].

Cipro package insert. West Have, Conn. Bayer Pharmaceuticals Corporation. April 2009.

Grady R. Safety profile of quinolone antibiotics in the pediatric population. Pediatr Infect Dis J. Dec 2003;22(12):1128-32. [Medline].

Bar-Oz B, Bulkowstein M, Benyamini L, Greenberg R, Soriano I, Zimmerman D. Use of antibiotic and analgesic drugs during lactation. Drug Saf. 2003;26(13):925-35. [Medline].

Cohen J, Powderly W. Episiotomy infections and postabortion sepsis. In: Infectious Diseases. 2nd ed. 2004:697-698.

Del Priore G, Jackson-Stone M, Shim EK, Garfinkel J, Eichmann MA, Frederiksen MC. A comparison of once-daily and 8-hour gentamicin dosing in the treatment of postpartum endometritis. Obstet Gynecol. Jun 1996;87(6):994-1000. [Medline].

French LM, Smaill FM. Antibiotic regimens for endometritis after delivery. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;CD001067. [Medline].

Gabbe, SG. Puerperal endometritis, serious sequelae of puerperal infection. In: Obstetrics: Normal and Problem Pregnancies. 4th ed. 2002:1304-1308.

Gilstrap LC, Faro S. Postpartum endometritis. In: Infections in Pregnancy. 2nd ed. 1997:65-78.

Monga M, Oshiro BT. Puerperal infections. Semin Perinatol. Dec 1993;17(6):426-31. [Medline].

Sweet RL, Gibbs RS. Postpartum infection. In: Infectious Diseases of the Female Genital Tract. 3rd ed. 1995:578-600.

Advanced Body Mechanics

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Barbara Frye Body Mechanics For Massage Therapists – Functional Approach To Self-care Fryetag Publishing (2004)

Marian Wolfe Dixon Body Mechanics and Self-Care Manual
Prentice Hall; 1 edition (August 4, 2000)

Visualizing Bones in Body Mechanics an article by Mary Ann Foster Massage & Bodywork magazine, December/January 2007. Copyright 2007. Associated Bodywork and Massage Professionals. All rights reserved.

HIVAIDS

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

The Effects of Therapeutic Massage on HIV and AIDS Patients
Jacob Gnanakkan. Massage Today September, 2005, Vol. 05, Issue 09

The Benefits of Massage Therapy for People Living with HIV/AIDS
Elliot Greene. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Spring 1997, 3(1): 97-98. doi:10.1089/acm.1997.3.97.

Boosting Immunity Against HIV Massage Therapy Offers Hope
Shirley Vanderbilt. Massage & Bodywork magazine, August/September 2005.

Antiretroviral agents—how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS Coovadia H. New England Journal Medicine.
Hall HI, Green TA, Wolitski RJ, et al. Estimated future HIV prevalence, incidence, and potential infections averted in the United States: a multiple scenario analysis.
All demographics and statistics are provided by the Center for Disease Control (CDC). www.cdc.gov

Out-Call Safety

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

DeBecker, Gavin, The Gift of Fear: Survival Signals That Protect Us From Violence (Boston: Little, Brown and Company1997).

The Complete Worst-Case Scenario Survival Handbook
by Joshua Piven,, David Borgenicht

Outcall Service and Safety: Preparation is the Key to Success Article by Sandra Gill Massage & Bodywork magazine, June/July 2000.

Prevention of Medical Errors

Making Health Care Safer: A Critical Analysis of Patient Safety Practices July 2001. Agency for Healthcare Research and QualitySource: Prevention of Medical Errors Continuing Education Ceus, Florida

Joint Commission on the Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; Agency for Health Care Research and Quality

Brennan TA, Leape LL, Laird NM, et al. Incidence of adverse events and negligence in hospitalized patients: results of the Harvard Medical Practice Study I. N Engl J Med. 1991;324:370-376. ; AHAF; EXL

Cook RI, Woods DD, Miller C. Tale of two stories: contrasting views of patient safety. Chicago, Ill: National Patient Safety Foundation. 1998. Available at: /exec/tocr.html, accessed 9/3/2008

Cooper JB, Gaba DM, Liang B, Woods D, Blum LN. National Patient Safety Foundation agenda for research and development in patient safety. Medscape Gen Med. 2000;2:[14 p.].

End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Patient Safety Initiative. Patient safety definitions and classifications. Chicago, Ill: National Patient Safety Foundation. 2001.

Henkel J. Medwatch: FDA’s ‘heads up’ on medical product safety. Washington DC: Food and Drug Administration. 1998. FDA Consum. 1998 Nov-Dec;32(6):10-2, 15.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Conducting a root cause analysis in response to a sentinel event. Oakbrook Terrace, Calif: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 1996.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Glossary of terms. Oakbrook Terrace, Calif: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 2001.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. What every hospital should know about sentinel events. Oakbrook Terrace, Calif: Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. 2000. # 0-86688-624-9.

Kohn LT, Corrigan JM, Donaldson MS. To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. 1999. # 0-309-06837-1. Available at: http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?isbn=0309068371. Accessed Oct. 16, 2011.

National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP). Taxonomy of medication errors. Hague, Netherlands: National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP). 1998. Available at: http://www.nccmerp.org/pdf/taxo2001-07-31.pdf. Accessed Oct. 16, 2011.

National Patient Safety Foundation. Agenda for research and development in patient safety. Chicago, Ill: National Patient Safety Foundation. 2000.

Perrow C. Normal accidents: living with high risk technologies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. 1999. # 0-691-00412-9.

Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force. Doing what counts for patient safety: Federal actions to reduce medical errors and their impact. Washington, DC: Quality Interagency Coordination Task Force. 2000. # 1-58763-000-1. Available at: http://www.quic.gov/report/toc.htm. Accessed Oct. 6, 2011.

Reason JT. Human error. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 1990. # 0-52131-419-4.

Reason JT. Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Aldershof, UK: Ashgate. 1997. # 0-84014-104-2.; AHAF; EXL

Rosenthal MM, Sutcliffe KM [eds]. Medical error: what do we know, what do we do?. San Francisco, Calif: Jossey-Bass. 2002. # 0-7879-6395-X.; ERG

Spath PL. Patient safety improvement guidebook. Forest Grove, OR: Brown-Spath & Associates. 2000. # 1-929955-07-3. Available at: http://www.brownspath.com/catalog.htm. Accessed Oct 16, 2011.

Woods DD. Behind human error: human factors research to improve patient safety. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. 2000.

Zipperer LA, Cushman S, eds. Lessons in patient safety. Chicago, Ill: National Patient Safety Foundation. 2001. # 1-57947-188-9. Available at: http://www.npsfstore.com. Accessed Sept. 3, 2008.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). (2000). Medical Errors: The Scope of the Problem. Fact sheet, Publication No. AHRQ 00-P037. Rockville, MD. Retrieved on November 5, 2007 from http://www.ahrq.gov/qual/errback.htm

Atkinson, R., & Royle, J. (2007, October). Correct Patient, Correct Side and Correct Site Surgery. ANZ Journal of Surgery, pp. 809,810. Retrieved November 6, 2007, from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.

Brooks, J. (2007, October 9). US Medicare will stop paying for preventable errors. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 177(8), 841-842. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.

Dekker, S. (2007, October). Criminalization of Medical Error: Who Draws the Line?. ANZ Journal of Surgery, 77(10), 831-837. Retrieved November 6, 2007, from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.

Kohn, L.T., Carrigan, J.M. & Donaldson, M.S., eds. (2000), To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health Care System. National Academies Press.
Leape, L. (2006, October 16). Disclose, apologize, explain. Newsweek, 148(16), 50. Retrieved November 5, 2007, from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database.

Many Errors by Medical Residents Caused by Teamwork Breakdowns, Lack of Supervision. (2007, 22 October). PR Newswire. Retrieved November 5, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Complete database. (Document ID: 1369866371).

Shaffer, M. (Producer, Director, and Writer). (2006) Silent Killer [Television series episode]. In Remaking American Medicine: Health Care for the 21st Century. PBS.

Shaffer, M., & Christopher, F. (Producer, Director, and Writer). (2006) First Do No Harm [Television series episode]. In Remaking American Medicine: Health Care for the 21st Century. PBS.

Stichler, J. (2007, October). Is Your Hospital Hospitable?: How Physical Environment Influences Patient Safety. Nursing for Women’s Health, 11(5), 506-511. Retrieved November 19, 2007, from Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition database.

Tasker, F. (2007, 27 October). Toddler’s death leads to stricter medical safeguards: A tragic mistake that led to the death of a 3-year-old boy prompted the University of Florida’s medical center to pledge it will improve its procedures. McClatchy – Tribune Business News, Retrieved November 5, 2007, from ABI/INFORM Complete database. (Document ID: 1373021571)

Florida Massage Therapy Rules and Laws

The text of the Florida laws and rules can be found on the Florida Massage Therapy Licensing Board Website: http://floridasmassagetherapy.gov

Massage Therapy for Victims of Sexual Abuse

Criminal Victimization in the United States, 2008 Statistical Tables: Demography of victims”. Bureau of Justice Statistics. May 2011.

Criminal Victimization in the United States, 2008 Statistical Tables: Victims and offenders”. Bureau of Justice Statistics. May 2011.

Tjaden, Patricia; Thoennes, Nancy (January 2006). “Extent, nature and consequences of rape victimization”. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice Programs, National Institute of Justice. “Among female rape victims, 78.2 percent were raped by one person, 13.5 percent were raped by two people, and 8.3 percent were raped by three or more people (see exhibit 6). Among male victims, the comparable figures are 83.3 percent, 12.1 percent, and 4.6 percent, respectively.”

United States Code: Title 10,920. Art. 120. Rape, sexual assault, and other sexual misconduct | LII / Legal Information Institute. Law.cornell.edu (2011-05-18). Retrieved on 2011-10-01.

FBI – FAQs about the Change in the UCR Definition of Rape

United States Department of Justice document, (table 26)[dead link]

Prevalence, Incidence, and Consequences of Violence Against Women: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.

Drug-facilitated, Incapacitated, and Forcible Rape: A National Study. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.

Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010″. JournalistsResource.org, retrieved March 24, 2012

Berzofsky, Marcus; Krebs, Christopher; Langton, Lynn; Planty, Michael; Smiley-McDonald, Hope (March 7, 2013). “Female Victims of Sexual Violence, 1994-2010”. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

http://bjs.ojp.usdoj.gov/content/pub/pdf/SOO.PDF page 10

Myriam S. Denov, Perspectives on Female Sex Offending: A Culture of Denial (Ashgate Publishing 2004) – ISBN 9780754635659 .
https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/nij/grants/223691.pdf

http://www.cdc.gov/ViolencePrevention/pdf/NISVS_SOfindings.pdf

http://www.nationallgbtcancernetwork.com/media/pdf/1_in_4_trans_turned_away.pdf
D’Amato, Anthony (23 June 2006). “Porn Up, Rape Down”. Social Sciences Research Network.

Bonnie S. Fisher, Francis T. Cullen, Michael G. Turner. Sexual Victimization of College Women

Dick Haws, “The Elusive Numbers on False Rape,” Columbian Journalism Review (November/December 1997).[1]

Alberto R. Gonzales et al. Extent, Nature, and Consequences of Rape Victimization: Findings From the National Violence Against Women Survey. U.S. Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs. January 2006

Bureau of Justice Statistics Home page. Ojp.usdoj.gov. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.

Krebs, Christopher P.; Lindquist, Christine H.; Warner, Tara D.; Fisher, Bonnie S.; Martin, Sandra L. (October 2007). “The Campus Sexual Assault Survey”. National Institute of Justice.

“Rape on College Campus”. Union College.

MacDonald, Heather (February 9, 2014). “Meretricious Meets Meddlesome: President Obama’s silly task force on campus sexual assault is wholly based on a fiction”. City Journal.

Hingston, Sandy (April 28, 2014). “Rape, Rape-Rape and Sexual Assault at Colleges”. Philadelphia.

Louis Harris and Associates (1994). “The Commonwealth Fund Survey of Women’s Health”. Jacobs Institute of Women’s Health. p. 20. PMID 8186725.
“Dear Colleague Letter”. United States Department of Education. April 4, 2011.

Grasgreen, Allie (February 12, 2014). “Classrooms, Courts or Neither?”. Inside Higher Ed.

Taranto, James (December 6, 2013). “An Education in College Justice”. The Wall Street Journal.

Hingston, Sandy (August 22, 2011). “The New Rules of College Sex”. Philadelphia.

Grossman, Judith (April 16, 2013). “A Mother, a Feminist, Aghast”. The Wall Street Journal.

Berkowitz, Peter (February 28, 2014). “On College Campuses, a Presumption of Guilt”. Real Clear Politics.

Young, Cathy (May 6, 2014). “Guilty Until Proven Innocent: The Skewed White House Crusade on Sexual Assault”. Time.

Van Zuylen-Wood, Simon (February 11, 2014). “Expelled Swarthmore Student Sues College Over Sexual Assault Allegations”. Philadelphia.

Lauerman, John (December 16, 2013). “College Men Accused of Sexual Assault Say Their Rights Violated”. Bloomberg.

Parra, Esteban (December 17, 2013). “DSU student who was cleared of rape charges sues school”. The News Journal.

United States Code. Caselaw.lp.findlaw.com. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.

Harvard University U.S. Rape Law. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-10-01.

Ivory, Danielle (October 21, 2009). “Rape Victim’s Choice: Risk AIDS or Health Insurance?”. The Huffington Post. Retrieved 2 December 2009. “Other patients and therapists wrote in with allegations that insurers are routinely denying long-term mental health care to women who have been sexually assaulted.”

Protess, Ben. (2009-07-30) Despite Promises, Some Rape Victims Stuck Paying Exam Bills The Huffington Post Investigative Fund. Retrieved on 2011-10-01.

Rape Victim Billed For Evidence Costs – Houston News Story – KPRC Houston. Click2houston.com (2009-05-07). Retrieved on 2011-10-01.
Jump up ^ http://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/433/584/case.html
Jump up ^ Klein, Ethel (1984). Gender Politics: from consciousness to mass politics. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. p. 24. ISBN 0-674-34197-X.

Lisak & Luster, 1994; Lisak, Hopper, & Song, 1996

Herman, J. (1981), Father Daughter Incest, Harvard University Press, Cambridge Mass.

Finkelhor, D. (1979), Sexually Victimized Children, New York, Free Press.

Greenwald, E., Leitenberg, H., Cado, S. and Tarran, M. J. (1990), ‘Childhood sexual abuse: long-term effects on psychological and sexual functioning in a nonclinical and nonstudent sample of adult women’,

Mullen, P. E., Martin, J. L., Anderson, J. C., Romans, S. E. and Herbison, G. P. (1994), ‘The effect of child sexual abuse on social, interpersonal and sexual function in adult life’, British Journal of Psychiatry

Alexander, P. C. (1993), ‘The differential effects of abuse characteristics and attachment in the prediction of long-term effects of sexual abuse’, Journal of Interpersonal Violence

Robson, P. J. (1988), ‘Self-esteem – a psychiatric view’, British Journal of Psychiatry

Romans, S. E., Martin, J. and Mullen, P. E. (1996), ‘Women’s self-esteem: a community study of women who report and do not report childhood sexual abuse’, British Journal of Psychiatry

Peters, S. D. (1988), ‘Child sexual abuse and later psychological problems’, in G. Wyatt and G. Powell (eds), Lasting Effects of Child Sexual Abuse, California Sage

Massage Therapy and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

Mary Beth Williams, The PTSD Workbook: Simple, Effective Techniques for Overcoming Traumatic Stress Symptoms New Harbinger Publications (May 15, 2002)

John B. Arden and Victoria Lemle Beckner Conquering Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Newest Techniques for Overcoming Symptoms, Regaining Hope, and Getting Your Life Back Fair Winds Press (September 1, 2008)

PTSD is Associated With an Excess of Inflammatory Immune Activities
Jessica M. Gill PhD, RN, Leo Saligan PhD, RN, Stephanie Woods PhD, RN, Gayle Page DNSc, RNArticle first published online: 24 SEP 2009

Lambert, Craig, PhD. “Deep into Sleep,” Harvard Magazine, July/August 2005.

Allen IR. PTSD: The Psychological Wounds of Terror. Facts of Life: Issue Briefings for Health Reporters [serial online]. 2001 Oct;6(6):Accessed May 28, 2003. Available at http://www.cfah.org/factsoflife/vol6no6.cfm.

Campbell K. One Year Later: Post-Traumatic Stress Takes Toll on Children. Facts of Life: Issue Briefings for Health Reporters [serial online]. 002 Sep;7(9):Accessed May 28, 2003. Available at

Massage Therapy for Substance Addiction

1 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect2peTabs43to84-2012.htm#Tab2.71B

2 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect2peTabs43to84-2012.htm#Tab2.46B

3 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect5peTabs1to56-2012.htm#Tab5.8A

4 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect5peTabs1to56-2012.htm#Tab5.32A

5 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect5peTabs1to56-2012.htm#Tab5.5A

6 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect5peTabs1to56-2012.htm#Tab5.29A

7 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol use and health. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/fact-sheets/alcohol-use.htm

8 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Alcohol and Public Health: Alcohol-Related Disease Impact (ARDI). Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/Alcohol/

9 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. 2012 Motor vehicle crashes: Overview. Available at: http://www-nrd.nhtsa.dot.gov/Pubs/811856.pdf

10 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Excessive drinking costs U.S. $223.5 Billion. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/features/alcoholconsumption/

11 World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health, p. XIV. 2014 ed. Available at: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/msb_gsr_2014_1.pdf?ua=1

12 World Health Organization. Global status report on alcohol and health, p. XIII. 2014 ed. Available at: http://www.who.int/substance_abuse/publications/global_alcohol_report/msb_gsr_2014_1.pdf?ua=1

13 Lim, S.S.; Vos, T.; Flaxman, A.D.; et al. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990–2010: A systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet 380(9859):2224–2260, 2012. PMID: 23245609

14 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Data spotlight: Over 7 million children live with a parent with alcohol problems. 2012. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/spotlight/Spot061ChildrenOfAlcoholics2012.pdf

15 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect2peTabs1to42-2012.htm#Tab2.15B

16 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Summary of national findings. NSDUH Series H-46., HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13–4795. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2013. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/index.aspx?from=carousel&position=1&date=09052013.

17 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Alcohol Alert, No. 67 “Underage Drinking,” 2006. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/AA67/AA67.htm

18 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect6peTabs55to107-2012.htm#Tab6.88B

19 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect6peTabs55to107-2012.htm#Tab6.89B

20 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/data/NSDUH/2012SummNatFindDetTables/DetTabs/NSDUH-DetTabsSect6peTabs55to107-2012.htm#Tab6.90B

21 Hingson, R.W.; Zha, W.; and Weitzman, E.R. Magnitude of and trends in alcohol-related mortality and morbidity among U.S. college students ages 18–24, 1998-2005. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs (Suppl. 16):12–20, 2009. PMID: 19538908 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2701090/

22 Blanco, C.; Okuda, M.; Wright, C. et al. Mental health of college students and their non-college-attending peers: Results from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry 65(12):1429–1437, 2008. PMID: 19047530 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2734947/

23 Wechsler, H.; Dowdall, G.W.; Maenner, G.; et al. Changes in binge drinking and related problems among American college students between 1993 and 1997: Results of the Harvard School of Public Health College Alcohol Study. Journal of American College Health 47(2):57–68, 1998. PMID: 9782661 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/ pdf/10.1080/07448489809595621

24 Stratton, K., Howe, C., Battaglia, F., eds. 1996 Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: Diagnosis, Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine National Academy Press, 1996.

25 May, P.A.; Gossage, J.P.; Kalberg, W.O.; et al. Prevalence and epidemiologic characteristics of FASD from various research methods with an emphasis on recent in-school studies. Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 15(3):176–192, 2009. PMID:19731384 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ddrr.68/pdf

26 Yoon, Y.H., and Yi, H.Y. Surveillance Report #93: Liver Cirrhosis Mortality in the United States, 1970–2009. Bethesda, MD: NIAAA, 2012. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Surveillance93/Cirr09.htm

27 Singal, A.K.; Guturu, P.; and Hmoud, B.; et al. Evolving frequency and outcomes of liver transplantation based on etiology of liver disease. Transplantation 95(5):755–760, 2012. PMID: 23370710 (Please note: The “almost 1 in 3” figure aggregates the total number of transplants necessitated by alcoholic cirrhosis, alcoholic liver disease plus hepatitis C virus infection, and 40 percent of transplants necessitated by hepatocellular carcinoma.)

28 National Cancer Institute. Cancer Trends Progress Report, 2009–2010 Update. Available at: http://progressreport.cancer.gov/doc_detail.asp?pid=1&did=2009&chid= 91&coid=906&mid

29 U.S. Department of Agriculture and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010. 7th Edition, p. 31. Available at: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2010/DietaryGuidelines2010.pdf

30 U.S. Department of Agriculture. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, pp. 355, 359. Available at: http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/DietaryGuidelines/2010/DGAC/Report/2010DGACReport-camera-ready-Jan11-11.pdf

31 U.S. Department of Agriculture. Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010, pp. 355–356. Available at: http://www.cnpp.usda.gov/Publications/DietaryGuidelines/2010/DGAC/Report/2010DGACReport-camera-ready-Jan11-11.pdf

32 Danaei, G.; Ding, E.L.; Mozaffarian, D.; et al. The preventable causes of death in the United States: Comparative risk assessment of dietary, lifestyle, and metabolic risk factors. PLoS Medicine 6(4):1–23, 2009. PMID: 19399161

33 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). NIAAA Council Approves Definition of Binge Drinking. NIAAA Newsletter Number 3, Winter 2004. Available at: http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/Newsletter/winter2004/Newsletter_Number3.pdf

34 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Binge Drinking: Terminology and Patterns of Use. Available at: http://captus.samhsa.gov/access-resources/binge-drinking-terminology-and-patterns-use

Cao J, Belluzzi JD, Loughlin SE, Keyler DE, Pentel PR and Leslie FM. Acetaldehyde, a major constituent of tobacco smoke, enhances behavioral, endocrine and neuronal resonses to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats.  Neuropsychopharmacology 32: 2025-35, 2007.

Parsons, O.A. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism. In: Nixon, S.J., ed. Neuropsychology for Clinical Practice. Washington, DC: American Psychological Press, 1996. pp. 175–201.

White, A.M. What happened? Alcohol, memory blackouts, and the brain. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):186–196, 2003.

White, A.M.; Jamieson–Drake, D.W.; and Swartzwelder, H.S. Prevalence and correlates of alcohol–induced blackouts among college students: Results of an e–mail survey. Journal of American College Health 51:117–131, 2002.

Mumenthaler, M.S.; Taylor, J.L.; O’Hara, R.; et al. Gender differences in moderate drinking effects.Alcohol Research & Health 23:55–64, 1999.

Loft, S.; Olesen, K.L.; and Dossing, M. Increased susceptibility to liver disease in relation to alcohol consumption in women.Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology 22: 1251–1256, 1987.

Fernandez– Sola, J.; Estruch, R.; Nicolas, J.M.; et al. Comparison of alcoholic cardiomyopathy in women versus men. American Journal of Cardiology 80:481–485, 1997.

Ammendola, A.; Gemini, D.; Iannacone, S.; et al. Gender and peripheral neuropathy in chronic alcoholism: A clinical–electroneurographic study. Alcohol and Alcoholism35:368–371, 2000.

Jacobson, R. The contributions of sex and drinking history to the CT brain scan changes in alcoholics. Psychological Medicine 16:547–559, 1986.

Mann, K.; Batra, A.; Gunther, A.; and Schroth, G. Do women develop alcoholic brain damage more readily than men? Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research16(6):1052–1056, 1992.

Nixon, S.; Tivis, R.; and Parsons, O. Behavioral dysfunction and cognitive efficiency in male and female alcoholics. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 19(3):577–581, 1995.

Hommer, D.W. Male and female sensitivity to alcohol–induced brain damage. Alcohol Research & Health27(2):181–185, 2003.

Hommer, D.W.; Momenan, R.; Kaiser, E.; and Rawlings, R.R. Evidence for a gender–related effect of alcoholism on brain volumes. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:198–204, 2001.

Pfefferbaum, A.; Rosenbloom, M.; Deshmukh, A.; and Sullivan, E. Sex differences in the effects of alcohol on brain structure. American Journal of Psychiatry 158:188–197, 2001.

National Academy of Sciences. Dietary reference intakes for thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin B12, pantothenic acid, biotin, and choline. 1999.

Morgan, M.Y. Alcohol and nutrition. British Medical Bulletins 38:21–29, 1982.

Martin, P.R.; Singleton, C.K.; and Hiller–Sturmhöfel, S.H. The role of thiamine in alcoholic brain disease. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):134–142, 2003.

Victor, M.; Davis, R.D.; and Collins, G.H. The Wernicke–Korsakoff Syndrome and Related Neurologic Disorders Due to Alcoholism and Malnutrition. Philadelphia: F.A. Davis, 1989.

Martin, P.“Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome: Alcohol–related dementia.”Family Caregiver Alliance Fact Sheet, 1998.

Cook, C.“The Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome can be treated.” The Medical Council on Alcohol, vol. 19, 2000.

Butterworth, R.F. Hepatic encephalopathy—A serious complication of alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):143–145, 2003.

Mitzner, S.R., and Williams, R. Albumin dialysis MARS 2003. Liver International 23(Suppl. 3):1–72, 2003.

Arria, A.M.; Tarter, R.E.; Starzl, T.E.; and Van Thiel, D.H. Improvement in cognitive functioning of alcoholics following orthotopic liver transplantation. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 15(6):956–962, 1991.

Pujol, A.; Pujol, J.; Graus, F.; et al. Hyperintense globus pallidus on T1–weighted MRI in cirrhotic patients is associated with severity of liver failure. Neurology 43:65–69, 1993.

Chen, W–J.A.; Maier, S.E.; Parnell, S.E.; and West, J.E. Alcohol and the developing brain: Neuroanatomical studies. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):174–180, 2003.

Klintsova, A.Y.; Scamra, C.; Hoffman, M.; et al. Therapeutic effects of complex motor training on motor performance deficits induced by neonatal binge–like alcohol exposure in rats: II. A quantitative stereological study of synaptic plasticity in female rat cerebellum. Brain Research 937:83–93, 2002.

Chen, S.Y.; Wilkemeyer, M.F.; Sulik, K.K.; and Charness, M.E. Octanol antagonism of ethanol teratogenesis. FASEB Journal 15:1649–1651, 2001.

Spong, C.Y.; Abebe, D.T.; Gozes, I.; et al. Prevention of fetal demise and growth restriction in a mouse model of fetal alcohol syndrome. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 297:774–779, 2001.

Thomas, J.D.; Fleming, S.L.; and Riley, E.P. Administration of low doses of MK–801 during ethanol withdrawal in the developing rat pup attenuates alcohol’s teratogenic effects.Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 26(8):1307–1313, 2002.

Altman, J., and Das, G.D. Autoradiographic and histological evidence of postnatal hippocampal neurogenesis in rats. Journal of Comparative Neurology 124(3):319–335, 1965.

Crews, F.T., and Nixon, K. Alcohol, neural stem cells, and adult neurogenesis. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2): 197–204, 2003.

Nixon, K., and Crews, F.T. Binge ethanol exposure decreases neurogenesis in adult rat hippocampus. Journal of Neurochemistry 83(5):1087–1093, 2002.

Herrera, D.G.; Yague, A.G.; Johnsen–Soriano, S.; et al. Selective impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis by chronic alcoholism: Protective effects of an antioxidant. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the U.S.A. 100(13):7919–7924, 2003.

Crews, F.T.; Miller, M.W.; Ma, W.; et al. Neural stem cells and alcohol. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 27(2):324–335, 2003.

Oscar–Berman, M., and Marinkovic, K. Alcoholism and the brain: An overview. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):125–133, 2003.

Bates, M.E.; Bowden, S.C.; and Barry, D. Neurocognitive impairment associated with alcohol use disorders: Implications for treatment. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 10(3):193–212, 2002.

Gansler, D.A.; Harris, G.J.; Oscar–Berman, M.; et al. Hypoperfusion of inferior frontal brain regions in abstinent alcoholics: A pilot SPECT study. Journal of Studies on Alcohol 61:32–37, 2000.

Sullivan, E.V.; Rosenbloom, M.J.; Lim, K.O.; and Pfefferbaum, A. Longitudinal changes in cognition, gait, and balance in abstinent and relapsed alcoholic men: Relationships to changes in brain structure. Neuropsychology 14:178–188, 2000.

Rosenbloom, M.; Sullivan, E.V.; and Pfefferbaum, A. Using magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging to assess brain damage in alcoholics. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):146–152, 2003.

Kensinger, E.A.; Clarke, R.J.; and Corkin, S. What neural correlates underlie successful encoding and retrieval? A functional magnetic resonance imaging study using a divided attention paradigm. Journal of Neuroscience 23(6):2407–2415, 2003.

Wong, D.F.; Maini, A.; Rousset, O.G.; and Brasíc , J.R. Positron emission tomography—A tool for identifying the effects of alcohol dependence on the brain. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):161–173, 2003.

Porjesz, B., and Begleiter, H. Alcoholism and human electrophysiology. Alcohol Research & Health 27(2):153–160, 2003.

Porjesz, B., and Begleiter, H. Human brain electrophysiology and alcoholism. In: Tarter, R., and Van Thiel, D., eds. Alcohol and the Brain. New York: Plenum, 1985. pp. 139–182.

Begleiter, H.; Porjesz, B.; Bihari, B.; and Kissin, B. Event–related potentials in boys at risk for alcoholism. Science 225:1493–1496, 1984.

Polich, J.; Pollock, V.E.; and Bloom, F.E. Meta–analysis of P300 amplitude from males at risk for alcoholism. Psychological Bulletin 115:55–73, 1994.

Controlling Infectious Agents in the Massage Room

All information regarding bacteria, fungus and viruses in this course are from the Center for Disease Control (CDC.GOV) as are the rules for Universal Precautions in a health care setting.

Herpes Simplex Demystified By Ruth Werner, LMP, NCTMB, Massage Therapy Foundation President Massage Today November, 2004, Vol. 04, Issue 11

Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists Susan G. & Craig Salvo

Pathology of the Integumentary System (Skin Disorders)

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage.
Milady 4 edition (2007)

Werner, Ruth A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4 edition (2008)

Virendra N Govind Srivastava M.D. Sehgal Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Skin Diseases Anshan Pub; 2 edition June 30, 2005

de Villiers EM, Fauquet C, Broker TR, Bernard HU, zur Hausen H (Jun 2004). “Classification of papillomaviruses”. Virology 324

Brownell I, Pomeranz M, Ma L (2005). “Eumycetoma”

Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.

Habif, Thomas P. (2009). Clinical dermatology (5th ed. ed.). Edinburgh: Mosby. ISBN 978-0-7234-3541-9.

Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). Page 685. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.

Acne Conglobata http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1072716-overview

Acne Conglobata Treatment & Management http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1072716-treatment

Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 1-4160-2999-0.

Testosterone and anabolic steroids and acne fulminans. Arch Dermatol. 1989; 125(4):571-2 (ISSN: 0003-987X)

Case reports: acne fulminans in Marfan syndrome. J Drugs Dermatol. 2005; 4(4):501-5 (ISSN: 1545-9616)

Acne conglobata and arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1961; 4:632-5 (ISSN: 0004-3591)

Acne fulminans with synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome treated with infliximab. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005; 52(5 Suppl 1):S118-20 (ISSN: 1097-6787)

Khumalo NP, Jessop S, Gumedze F, Ehrlich R. Hairdressing and the prevalence of scalp disease in African adults. Br J Dermatol. Nov 2007;157(5):981-8.

Grunwald MH, Ben-Dor D, Livni E, Halevy S. Acne keloidalis-like lesions on the scalp associated with antiepileptic drugs. Int J Dermatol. Oct 1990;29(8):559-61

Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. (6th ed.). Page 685. McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-138076-0.

Wolff, Klaus Dieter; et al. (2008). Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in General Medicine. McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0-07-146690-8.

James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. Page 245. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.

Alikhan, Ali; Lynch, Eisen (2009). “Hidradenitis suppurativa: a comprehensive review”. J Am Acad Derm 60 (4): 539–561.

Kumar, Vinay; Fausto, Nelso; Abbas, Abul (2004) Robbins & Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease (7th ed.). Saunders. Page 1230. ISBN 0-7216-0187-1.

Michalczyk, A; Varigos, G; Catto-Smith, A; Blomeley, Rc; Ackland, Ml (August 2003). “Analysis of zinc transporter, hZnT4 ( Slc30A4), gene expression in a mammary gland disorder leading to reduced zinc secretion into milk”. Human Genetics 113 (3): 202–10. doi:10.1007/s00439-003-0952-2. PMID 12743795.

James, William D.; Berger, Timothy G.; et al. (2006). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: clinical Dermatology. Saunders Elsevier. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.

Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology – Expert Consult – Online and Print, 11e (James, Andrew’s Disease of the Skin) William D. James MD (Author), Timothy Berger MD (Author), Dirk Elston MD (Author)

Oculocutaneous albinism. Okulicz JF1, Shah RS, Schwartz RA, Janniger CK.J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2003 May;17(3):251-6.

Phornphutkul C, Introne WJ, Perry MB, et al. (2002). “Natural history of alkaptonuria”. New England Journal Medicine 347 (26): 2111–21. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa021736. PMID 12501223.

Doctoroff A, Oberlender AS, Purcell SM. Full face carbon dioxide resurfacing in the management of a patient with the nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome. Dermatol Surg, 2003;29(12):1236-1240

Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CA, Bouquot JE. (2002). Oral & maxillofacial pathology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. pp. 141, 142, 163, 689, 713. ISBN 0721690033.

Saulsbury FT (2001). “Henoch-Schönlein purpura”. Current Opinion in Rheumatology 13 (1): 35–40. doi:10.1097/00002281-200101000-00006. PMID 11148713.

Musculoskeletal Pathology for Massage Therapists

Schmahmann JD (2004). “Disorders of the cerebellum: ataxia, dysmetria of thought, and the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome”. J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 16 (3): 367–78. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.16.3.367. PMID 15377747.

Joyce, Amy (23 April 2005). “For Some, Thumb Pain Is BlackBerry’s Stain”. The Washington Post. Retrieved 2010-04-03.

McCartan, B; Ashby, E; Taylor, EJ; Haddad, FS (Apr 2012). “Carpal tunnel syndrome.”. British journal of hospital medicine (London, England : 2005) 73 (4): 199–202. PMID 22585195.

U.S. National Library of Medicine (2010). “Costochondritis”. National Institutes of Health. Retrieved 26 December 2012.

Bach HG, Goldberg BA (May 2006). “Posterior capsular contracture of the shoulder”. J Am Acad Orthop Surg 14 (5): 265–77. PMID 16675620.

Visser M (October 2009). “Towards a definition of sarcopenia–results from epidemiologic studies”. J Nutr Health Aging (Review) 13 (8): 713–6. doi:10.1007/s12603-009-0202-y. PMID 19657555.

Wang LH, Pestronk A. Muscle pain and cramps In: Daroff RB, Fenichel GM, Jankovic J, Mazziotta JC, eds. Bradley’s Neurology in Clinical Practice. 6th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 26.

North, Kathryn (2008). “What’s new in congenital myopathies?”. Neuromuscular Disorders 18 (6): 433–42. doi:10.1016/j.nmd.2008.04.002. PMID 18482838.

T. A. Järvinen, et al., “Muscle injuries: optimising recovery” , Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol., 21 (2) Apr 2007, pp. 317-31.

Wilson, JJ; Best TM (Sep 2005). “Common overuse tendon problems: A review and recommendations for treatment” (PDF). American Family Physician 72 (5): 811–8. PMID 16156339.

Wolfe F (February 1989). “Fibromyalgia: the clinical syndrome”. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 15 (1): 1–18. PMID 2644671.

MYOSITIS OSSIFICANS CHARLES F. GESCHICKTER ; I. H. MASERITZ J Bone Joint Surg Am, 1938 Jul;20(3):661-674

Gutmann, L; Phillips LH, 2nd (September 1991). “Myotonia congenita.”. Seminars in neurology 11 (3): 244–8. doi:10.1055/s-2008-1041228. PMID 1947487.

Conti-Fine BM, Milani M, Kaminski HJ (2006). “Myasthenia gravis: past, present, and future”. J. Clin. Invest. 116 (11): 2843–54. doi:10.1172/JCI29894. PMC 1626141. PMID 17080188.

R H Brown Jr., J R Mendell (2005). Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine. p. 2527. doi:10.1036/0071402357.

Bennett, Robert (2007). “Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation”. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 21 (3): 427–45. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2007.02.014. PMID 17602992.

“nemaline myopathy” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary

Clement D., Taunton J., Smart G. (1981). “A survey of overuse running injuries”. The Physician and Sports Medicine 9, 47–58.

“hernia” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary

Miller, Frederick W (10 June 2009). “Classification of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies”. In Kagen, Lawrence J. The Inflammatory Myopathies. Springer. pp. 23–36. ISBN 9781627038393.

Digiovanni, Cw; Patel, A; Calfee, R; Nickisch, F (Apr 2007). “Osteonecrosis in the foot”. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 15 (4): 208–17. ISSN 1067-151X. PMID 17426292.

Ralston, Stuart H. (Feb 14, 2013). “Paget’s Disease of Bone”. New England Journal of Medicine 368 (7): 644–650. doi:10.1056/NEJMcp1204713. PMID 23406029.

Fon GT, Pitt MJ, Thies AC. Thoracic kyphosis:range in normal subjects. Am J Roentgenol. 1980;134: 979–983

Jiménez-Balderas FJ, Mintz G (1993). “Ankylosing spondylitis: clinical course in women and men”. J Rheumatol

Chen LX, Schumacher HR (October 2008). “Gout: an evidence-based review”. J Clin Rheumatol 14 (5 Suppl): S55–62. doi:10.1097/RHU.0b013e3181896921. PMID 18830092.

“osteoarthritis” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary

Thomas, Clayton L. (1985). Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary. F.A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ISBN 0-8036-8309-X.

Beighton P, De Paepe A, Steinmann B, Tsipouras P, Wenstrup RJ (1998). “Ehlers–Danlos syndromes: revised nosology, Villefranche, 1997. Ehlers–Danlos National Foundation (USA) and Ehlers–Danlos Support Group (UK)”. American Journal of Medical Genetics 77 (1):

Cotran; Kumar, Collins (1998). Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease. Philadelphia: W.B Saunders Company. ISBN 0-7216-7335-X.

James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2005). Andrews’ Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology. (10th ed.). Saunders. Page 517. ISBN 0-7216-2921-0.

Hellmann, DB (2005). “Chapter 20: Arthritis & Musculoskeletal Disorders”. In Tierney LM, Jr., McPhee SJ, Papadakis MA. Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment (44th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company. ISBN 0-07-145323-7.

Dooley PJ (January 2008). “Femoroacetabular impingement syndrome: Nonarthritic hip pain in young adults”. Can Fam Physician 54 (1): 42–7. PMC 2293316. PMID 18208954.

Candeliere GA, Glorieux FH, Prud’homme J, St-Arnaud R (June 1995). “Increased expression of the c-fos proto-oncogene in bone from patients with fibrous dysplasia”. N. Engl. J. Med. 332 (23): 1546–51. doi:10.1056/NEJM199506083322304. PMID 7739708.

“Hereditary multiple exostoses ” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary

“Kienböck’s disease: the role of silicone replacement arthroplasty.”. J Bone Joint Surg Am 59 (7): 899–908. Oct 1977. PMID 908720

Kniest dysplasia is one of a spectrum of skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene. The protein made by this gene forms type II collagen, a molecule found mostly in cartilage and in the clear gel that fills the eyeball (the vitreous). Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other Connective Tissues. Mutations in the COL2A1 gene that cause Kniest dysplasia interfere with the assembly of type II collagen molecules, which prevents bones from developing properly and causes the signs and symptoms of the disorder.

“Kniest dysplasia” at The U.S. National Library of Medicine

Loeys BL, Schwarze U, Holm T, et al (2006). “Aneurysm syndromes caused by mutations in the TGF-beta receptor”. N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (8): 788–98. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055695. PMID 16928994.

Pappas AM (1981). “Osteochondrosis dissecans”. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (158): 59–69. PMID 7273527.

Osteochondroma”. University of Rochester Medical Center. Retrieved 15 March 2014.

Franco, Abby Herzog (1987). “Pes Cavus and Pes Planus Analyses and Treatment.”. Physical Therapy 67 (5): 688–694.

Lareau CR, Sawyer GA, Wang JH, DiGiovanni CW (June 2014). “Plantar and Medial Heel Pain: Diagnosis and Management”. The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 22 (6): 372–80. doi:10.5435/JAAOS-22-06-372. PMID 24860133.

Conditions of the Nervous System for Massage Therapists

The Nervous System By Adina Michael-Titus, Patricia Revest, Peter Shortland Publisher Churchill Livingstone, 2007
ISBN 0443071799, 9780443071799

Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems By Lauralee Sherwood Publisher Cengage Learning, 2008 ISBN 0495391840, 9780495391845

Hippocrates (400 BCE). On the Sacred Disease. Francis Adams.

The Mind and the Brain By Jeffrey M. Schwartz, Sharon Begley Publisher HarperCollins, 2009 ISBN 0061961981, 9780061961984

Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. pp. 132–144. ISBN 0-13-981176-1.

Carlson, Neil. Physiology of Behavior. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 9780205239399.

Susan Standring, Neil R. Borley [et al.] (2008). “Overview of cranial nerves and cranial nerve nuclei”. Gray’s anatomy: the anatomical basis of clinical practice (40th ed.). [Edinburgh]: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-443-06684-9.

“Spinal Nerves”. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved 12 April 2014.

Microscopic Morphology and Histology of the Human Meninges¨. Mar2005. p22-34.

Hall, Arthur C. Guyton, John E. (2005). Textbook of medical physiology (11th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. ISBN 978-0-7216-0240-0.

John Krantz. Experiencing Sensation and Perception. “Chapter 1: What is Sensation and Perception?” pp. 1.6 Retrieved May 16, 2013.

Atlas of the Sensory Organs: Functional and Clinical Anatomy Publisher Springer Science & Business Media, 2007
ISBN 1592598498, 9781592598496

Principles of Medical Physiology Sabyasachi Sircar Publisher Thieme, 2008 ISBN 1588905721, 9781588905727

Neuroscience Volume 2 of Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain Editors Mark F. Bear, Barry W. Connors, Michael A.
Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2007 ISBN 0781760038, 9780781760034

Intermediate Physics for Medicine and Biology Biological and medical physics, biomedical engineering
Biological physics series Russell K. Hobbie, Bradley J. Roth Publisher Springer Science & Business Media, 2007
ISBN 0387498850, 9780387498850

Schwartz, James H. (James Harris); Jessell, Thomas M. (2000). Principles of neural science. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-8385-7701-1. OCLC 42073108.

National Institute of Health-“Encephalitis”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encephalitis.html

National Institute of Health-“Meningitis”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/meningitis.html

National Institute of Health-“Huntingtons disease”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/huntingtonsdisease.html

National Institute of Health-“Alzheimers disease”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alzheimersdisease.html

National Institute of Health-“Parkinsons disease”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/parkinsonsdisease.html

National Institute of Health-“Tourette syndrome”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/tourettesyndrome.html

National Institute of Health-“Multiplesclerosis”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/multiplesclerosis.html

National Institute of Health-“Traumaticbraininjury”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/traumaticbraininjury.html

National Institute of Health-“Peripheral nerve disorders”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/peripheralnervedisorders.html

National Institute of Health-“Anxiety”
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/anxiety.html

Conditions of the Cardiovascular System for Massage Therapists

Chapter 1 Review information taken from The Cardiovascular System: Systems of the body by Alan Noble Publisher Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2005 ISBN 0443073082, 9780443073083

Vos, T; Flaxman, AD; Naghavi, M; Lozano, R; Michaud, C; Ezzati, M; Shibuya, K; Salomon, JA et al. (Dec 15, 2012). “Years lived with disability (YLDs) for 1160 sequelae of 289 diseases and injuries 1990–2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010”. Lancet 380 (9859): 2163–96. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61729-2. PMID 23245607.

Rosamond, W.; Flegal, K.; Furie, K.; Go, A.; Greenlund, K.; Haase, N.; Hailpern, S. M.; Ho, M.; Howard, V.; Kissela, B.; Kittner, S.; Lloyd-Jones, D.; McDermott, M.; Meigs, J.; Moy, C.; Nichol, G.; O’Donnell, C.; Roger, V.; Sorlie, P.; Steinberger, J.; Thom, T.; Wilson, M.; Hong, Y. (17 December 2007). “Heart

Disease and Stroke Statistics–2008 Update: A Report From the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee”. Circulation 117 (4): e25–e146.
Sekhri, N; Feder, GS; Junghans, C; Eldridge, S; Umaipalan, A; Madhu, R; Hemingway, H; Timmis, AD (2008). “Incremental prognostic value of the exercise electrocardiogram in the initial assessment of patients with suspected angina: cohort study.”. BMJ(Clinical research ed.) 337: a2240. doi:10.1136/bmj.a2240. PMC 2583389. PMID 19008264.

Alexander Leff. “Alexia”. VOLUME 4 NUMBER 3 JULY/AUGUST 2004. ACNR. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
Devinsky, Orrin; D’Esposito, Mark (2004). Neurology of Cognitive and Behavioral Disorders (21st ed.). pp. 194–196.
Sheikh, AS; Ali, K; Mazhar, S (Sep 3, 2013). “Acute aortic syndrome.”. Circulation 128 (10): 1122–7. doi:10.1161/circulationaha.112.000170. PMID 24002714.

Manning, WJ (October 2013). “Asymptomatic aortic stenosis in the elderly: a clinical review”. JAMA 310 (14): 1490–1497. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.279194. PMID 24104373.
Heilman KM, Watson RT, Gonzalez-Rothi LJ. Praxis. In: Goetz CG. Goetz: Textbook of Clinical Neurology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 4.
Mandel, William J., ed. (1995). Cardiac Arrhythmias: Their Mechanisms, Diagnosis, and Management (3 ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-0-397-51185-3.
Stedman’s medical dictionary (28th ed. ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. 2006. p. Anemia.

“Ateriosclerosis” at Dorland’s Medical Dictionary
Scarvelis D, Wells P (2006). “Diagnosis and treatment of deep-vein thrombosis”. CMAJ 175 (9): 1087–92. doi:10.1503/cmaj.060366. PMC 1609160.

Diseases of the Immune System for Massage Therapists

Human Anatomy’ 2007 Ed.2007 Edition By Saladin, Kenneth The Lymphatic System and Immunity pgs 629-653
Publisher Rex Bookstore, Inc. ISBN 0071259716, 9780071259712

Human Physiology: From Cells to Systems By Lauralee Sherwood Publisher Cengage Learning, 2008
ISBN 0495391840, 9780495391845

Macrophages: A Practical ApproachmIssue 239 of Practical approach series, ISSN 0957-025X
Editor Donna M. Paulnock Publisher Oxford University Press, 2000 ISBN 0199636885, 9780199636884

Banchereau J, Steinman RM (March 1998). “Dendritic cells and the control of immunity”. Nature 392 (6673): 245–52. doi:10.1038/32588. PMID 9521319.

Nakanishi, Kenji (December 2010). “Basophils as APC in Th2 response in allergic inflammation and parasite infection”. Current Opinion in Immunology 22 (6): 814–820. doi:10.1016/j.coi.2010.10.018.

Nathan, C (Mar 2006). “Neutrophils and immunity: challenges and opportunities”. Nature Reviews Immunology 6 (March): 173–82. doi:10.1038/nri1785. ISSN 1474-1733. PMID 16498448.

Jiuyang Zhang, Yung Pin Chen, Kristen P. Miller, Mitra S. Ganewatta, Marpe Bam, Yi Yan, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Alan W. Decho, Chuanbing Tang. Antimicrobial Metallopolymers and Their Bioconjugates with Conventional Antibiotics against Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2014; 136 (13): 4873 DOI: 10.1021/ja5011338

“The Lymphatic System”. Human Anatomy (Gray’s Anatomy).

Pascall, C R; Stearn, E J; Mosley, J G (1980-07-05), “Short Reports”, British Medical Journal: 26, PMC 1713722, PMID 7407483, “Unlike S hadar peritonitis, S typhi peritonitis is due to perforation of Peyer’s patches.”

Mebius, RE; Kraal, G (2005). “Structure and function of the spleen”. Nature reviews. Immunology 5 (8): 606–16. doi:10.1038/nri1669. PMID 16056254.

Milady’s Guide to Lymph Drainage Massage Author Ramona Moody French Publisher Cengage Learning, 2003 ISBN 1401824722, 9781401824723

http://www.merckmanuals.com/home/infections/biology_of_infectious_disease/defenses_against_infection.html

Jones J, Bannister BA, Gillespie SH, ed. (2006). Infection: Microbiology and Management. Wiley-Blackwell. p. 435. ISBN 1-4051-2665-5.

Lymphoma: Pathology, Diagnosis, and Treatment Robert Marcus, John W. Sweetenham, Michael E. Williams
Publisher Cambridge University Press, 2013 ISBN 1107652839, 9781107652835

Patterson’s Allergic Diseases Authors Leslie C. Grammer, Paul A. Greenberger Publisher Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012 ISBN 1451148631, 9781451148633

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Biological Approach Editors Patrick Englebienne, Kenny De Meirleir
Publisher CRC Press, 2002 ISBN 1420041002, 9781420041002

Sande’s HIV/AIDS Medicine: Medical Management of AIDS 2012
Saunders W.B Editors Paul Volberding, Joep M. A. Lange, Warner C. Greene, Nelson Sewankambo

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Editors Robert G. Lahita, George Tsokos, Jill P. Buyon, Takao Koike Publisher Academic Press, 2010 ISBN 0080961711, 9780080961712

Rapaport MH, Schettler P, Bresee C. A Preliminary Study of the Effects of a Single Session of Swedish Massage on Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal and Immune Function in Normal Individuals. J Altern Complement Med. 2010 Sep 1. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 20809811; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3107905.

Barnes PM, Bloom B, Nahin RL. Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults and children: United States, 2007. Hyatsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics; 2008.

The Complete Guide to Lymph Drainage Massage Ramona French Publisher Cengage Learning, 2011
ISBN 1439056714, 9781439056714

Research Literacy for Massage Therapists

Bauer, H.H. (1994). Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press

Kuhn, T. (1996). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (3rd Ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Popper, K. (2002). The Logic of Scientific Discovery (2nd Ed.). London, UK: Routledge

Bernstein, P., & Wright Nash, P. (2008). Essentials of psychology (4th Ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company

Goodwin, C.J. (2009). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley

Jackson, S.L. (2011). Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach (2nd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Bruce, N., Pope, D., & Stanistreet, D. (2008). Quantitative Methods for Health Research: A Practical Guide to Epidemiology and Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons

Kang, S. (2008). Statistical Methods for Case-Control and Case-Cohort Studies with Possibly Correlated Time Failure Data. Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest

Schlesselman, J.J. (1982). Case Control Studies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Gravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.J. (2009). Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, (8th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Howell, D.C. (2009). Statistical Methods for Psychology, (7th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Mitchell, M.L., & Jolley, J.M. (2009). Research Design Explained (7th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

ngen, MJ. (2000). “Evaluating interpretive inquiry: Reviewing the validity debate and opening the dialogue.” Qualitative Health Research. 10(3) pp. 378-395.

Creswell, JW. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Denzin, NK. (1978). Sociological Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lincoln, YS. & Guba, EG. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Mays, N. & Pope, C. (2000). “Qualtative research in health care: Assessing quality in qualitative research.” BMJ. 320(7226), 50-52.

Patton, MQ. (1999). “Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.” HSR: Health Services Research. 34 (5) Part II. pp. 1189-1208.

Patton, MQ. (2001). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd Edition). Thousand oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bocking, Stephen (2004). Nature’s experts: science, politics, and the environment. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8135-3398-8.

Cressey, Daniel (2014). “Journals weigh up double-blind peer review”. Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15564. Retrieved 15 November 2014

Dinardo, J. (2008). “natural experiments and quasi-natural experiments”. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. pp. 856–859. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1162. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. edit

Rossi, Peter Henry; Mark W. Lipsey; Howard E. Freeman (2004).

Evaluation: A Systematic Approach (7th ed.). SAGE. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7619-0894-4.

Gribbons, Barry; Herman, Joan (1997). “True and quasi-experimental designs”. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 5 (14).

Muaz, Jalil Mohammad (2013), Practical Guidelines for conducting research. Summarising good research practice in line with the DCED Standard

Robson, C. (1993). Real-world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner – researchers. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Adèr, H. J., Mellenbergh, G. J., & Hand, D. J. (2008). Advising on research methods: a consultant’s companion. Huizen: Johannes van Kessel Publishing. ISBN 978-90-79418-01-5

Bell, J. (1999). Doing your research project. Buckingham: OUP.

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Definition of statistical terms courtesy of
Weisstein, Eric W., “Statistical Median”, MathWorld.

Bauer, H.H. (1994). Scientific Literacy and the Myth of the Scientific Method. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press

Kuhn, T. (1996). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (3rd Ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Popper, K. (2002). The Logic of Scientific Discovery (2nd Ed.). London, UK: Routledge

Bernstein, P., & Wright Nash, P. (2008). Essentials of psychology (4th Ed.) Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company

Goodwin, C.J. (2009). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley

Jackson, S.L. (2011). Research Methods and Statistics: A Critical Thinking Approach (2nd Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Bruce, N., Pope, D., & Stanistreet, D. (2008). Quantitative Methods for Health Research: A Practical Guide to Epidemiology and Statistics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley and Sons

Kang, S. (2008). Statistical Methods for Case-Control and Case-Cohort Studies with Possibly Correlated Time Failure Data. Ann Arbor, MI: Proquest

Schlesselman, J.J. (1982). Case Control Studies. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Gravetter, F.J., & Wallnau, L.J. (2009). Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences, (8th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Howell, D.C. (2009). Statistical Methods for Psychology, (7th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

Mitchell, M.L., & Jolley, J.M. (2009). Research Design Explained (7th Ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning

ngen, MJ. (2000). “Evaluating interpretive inquiry: Reviewing the validity debate and opening the dialogue.” Qualitative Health Research. 10(3) pp. 378-395.

Creswell, JW. (1998). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design Choosing Among Five Traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Denzin, NK. (1978). Sociological Methods. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Lincoln, YS. & Guba, EG. (1985). Naturalistic Inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Mays, N. & Pope, C. (2000). “Qualtative research in health care: Assessing quality in qualitative research.” BMJ. 320(7226), 50-52.

Patton, MQ. (1999). “Enhancing the quality and credibility of qualitative analysis.” HSR: Health Services Research. 34 (5) Part II. pp. 1189-1208.

Patton, MQ. (2001). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods (2nd Edition). Thousand oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bocking, Stephen (2004). Nature’s experts: science, politics, and the environment. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. p. 164. ISBN 0-8135-3398-8.

Cressey, Daniel (2014). “Journals weigh up double-blind peer review”. Nature News. doi:10.1038/nature.2014.15564. Retrieved 15 November 2014

Dinardo, J. (2008). “natural experiments and quasi-natural experiments”. The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics. pp. 856–859. doi:10.1057/9780230226203.1162. ISBN 978-0-333-78676-5. edit

Rossi, Peter Henry; Mark W. Lipsey; Howard E. Freeman (2004).

Evaluation: A Systematic Approach (7th ed.). SAGE. p. 237. ISBN 978-0-7619-0894-4.

Gribbons, Barry; Herman, Joan (1997). “True and quasi-experimental designs”. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation 5 (14).

Muaz, Jalil Mohammad (2013), Practical Guidelines for conducting research. Summarising good research practice in line with the DCED Standard

Robson, C. (1993). Real-world research: A resource for social scientists and practitioner – researchers. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.

Adèr, H. J., Mellenbergh, G. J., & Hand, D. J. (2008). Advising on research methods: a consultant’s companion. Huizen: Johannes van Kessel Publishing. ISBN 978-90-79418-01-5

Bell, J. (1999). Doing your research project. Buckingham: OUP.

Creswell, J.W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

Definition of statistical terms courtesy of
Weisstein, Eric W., “Statistical Median”, MathWorld.

Cohen, J. J. (2001). “Trust Us to Make a Difference: Ensuring Public Confidence in the Integrity of Clinical Research.” Acad Med 76(2): 209-214.
Investigators’ and institutions’ financial conflicts of interest in clinical research raise serious questions about the objectivity of such research, the safety of human subjects, and the threat to public trust in the integrity of clinical research. Yet the author makes clear that a conflict of interest is a state of affairs, not a behavior, and therefore not automatically a manifestation of improper actions. But it is clear that both non-financial conflicts of interest and financial ones are double-edged: they can motivate individuals to do their best work but also can compromise judgment and undermine objectivity. The author offers eight suggestions for what academic medicine’s leaders might do in this regard (comply with existing full-disclosure requirements; establish principles governing institutional conflicts of interest; etc.). He closes by reiterating that the pursuit of clinical research depends entirely on the ability and willingness of the research community to merit public trust.

(2003). “Protecting Subjects, Preserving Trust, Promoting Progress I: Policy and Guidelines for the Oversight of Individual Financial Interests in Human Subjects Research.” Acad Med 78(2): 225-236.
(From the Executive Summary) In December 2001, the AAMC Task Force on Financial Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research released this report, the first of two (both published in this issue of Academic Medicine). This report focuses on gaps in existing federal financial disclosure regulations of individual conflicts of interests, finding that additional scrutiny is recommended in two areas: human subjects research and privately sponsored research. The task force suggests that when potential conflicts exist, a conflicts of interest committee should apply a rebuttable presumption against engaging in human subjects research. The task force recommends that the circumstances giving rise to the presumption against the proposed activity be balanced against compelling circumstances in favor of the conduct of the research. The AAMC task force delineates core principles to guide institutional policy development. First, an institution should regard all significant financial interests in human subjects research as requiring close scrutiny. Second, in the event of compelling circumstances, an individual holding a significant financial interest may be permitted to conduct the research. Whether circumstances are deemed compelling will depend in each case upon the nature of the science, the nature of the interest, how closely the interest is related to the research, and the degree to which the interest may be affected by the research. Four other core principles for development of institutional policies are identified in the report, pertaining to reporting, monitoring, management of conflicts, and accountability.

(2003). “Protecting Subjects, Preserving Trust, Promoting Progress II: Principles and Recommendations for Oversight of an Institution’s Financial Interests in Human Subjects Research.” Acad Med 78(2): 237-245.
(From the Executive Summary) The AAMC Task Force on Financial Conflicts of Interest in Clinical Research issued this report, the second of two, in October 2002. (The first report is also published in this issue of Academic Medicine.) This report offers a unique perspective on the new phenomenon of “institutional” conflicts of interest. The task force acknowledges the diverse obligations of academic institutions that conduct research and also invest in–and accept the philanthropy of–commercial research sponsors. The task force emphasizes the importance of disclosing institutional financial interests as an integral part of the research process, critical to allaying public concerns, and to strengthening the trust relationship between research subjects, the public and the scientific community. The task force found that the safety and welfare of research subjects and the objectivity of the research could be–or could appear to be–compromised whenever an institution holds a significant financial interest that may be affected by the outcome of the research. Thus, the task force recommends separating the functional and administrative responsibilities related to human subjects research from those related to investment managing and technology licensing, and encourages the establishment of institutional conflicts-of-interest committees. As in the first report, the task force recommends that institutions should develop policies establishing a rebuttable presumption against the conduct of research at or under the auspices of an institution where potential conflicts in human subjects research are identified. This presumption against engaging in the research is to be balanced against compelling circumstances in favor of the conduct of the proposed research activity.

Kelch, R. (2002). “Maintaining the public trust in clinical research.” N Engl J Med 346(4): 285-7.
This is a laudatory commentary on the AAMCs report on individual conflicts of interest.

(2003). Financial Relationships and Interests in Research Involving Human Subjects: Guidance for Human Subject Protection. Federal Register. 68: 15456-15460.
The Office of Public Health and Science (OPHS), Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) announces a final guidance document for Institutional Review Boards (IRBs), investigators, research institutions, and other interested parties, entitled Financial Relationships and Interests in Research Involving Human Subjects: Guidance for Human Subject Protection. This guidance document raises points to consider in determining whether specific financial interests in research could affect the rights and welfare of human subjects, and if so, what actions could be considered to protect those subjects. This guidance applies to human subjects research conducted or supported by HHS or regulated by the Food and Drug Administration.

Angell, M. (2000). “Is Academic Medicine for Sale?” N Engl J Med 342(20): 1516-1518.
This position paper uses evidence mostly from publications to argue that conflicts of interest are so pervasive so as to compromise the integrity of much medical publication.

Bekelman, J. E., Y. Li, et al. (2003). “Scope and Impact of Financial Conflicts of Interest in Biomedical Research: A Systematic Review.” JAMA 289(4): 454-465.
This was a meta-analysis of the quantitative analytic literature on conflicts of interest in biomedical research from 1980 to 2002 using a variety of search techniques for materials. In 34 studies meeting all their criteria they show that about ¼ of the investigators had industry affiliations and 2/3 of academic institutions hold equity in start-ups that sponsor research. They claimed a relationship between industry sponsorship and positive conclusions. Industry sponsorship was also associated with restrictions on publication and data sharing. They concluded that conflicts of interest can have a powerful effect on biomedical research reports.

Bentley, J. P. and P. G. Thacker (2004). “The influence of risk and monetary payment on the research participation decision making process.” J Med Ethics 30(3): 293-298.
This study used pharmacy students’ reactions to scenarios varied by risk and payment to determine the extent to which they affected decisions to participate in a clinical trial. They found that money did help enlist subjects but they were not blinded to the risks.

Blumenthal, D. (2003). “Academic-Industrial Relationships in the Life Sciences.” N Engl J Med 349(25): 2452-2459.
The author describes the evolving set of relationships between academic institutions and industry as it pertains to biological developments. He points out the rapid progress of biotechnology and the significant support of research by industry. He also points out the influences on scientific integrity and diminished quality of treatment of research subjects. A very important paper.

Blumenthal, D. (2004). “Doctors and Drug Companies.” N Engl J Med 351(18): 1885-1890.
The author describes the evolving nature of the relationships between doctors and drug companies over the 20th century and the influences that the companies have come to exert over medical practice and research. He also discusses efforts to manage these relationships. Conflicts of interest pervade. This is a very powerful statement and uncomfortable reading for physicians.

Blumenthal, D., N. Causino, et al. (1996). “Relationships between Academic Institutions and Industry in the Life Sciences — An Industry Survey.” N Engl J Med 334(6): 368-374.
Despite growing acceptance of relationships between academia and industry in the life sciences, systematic, up-to-date information about their extent and the consequences for the parties involved remains scarce. They surveyed a representative sample of life-science companies in the United States to determine their relationships with academic institutions by telephone from senior executives of 210 life-science companies (69%). Ninety percent of the companies had relationships with an academic institution in 1994. Fifty-nine percent supported research, providing approximately 11.7 percent of their research-and-development funding. Over 60 percent of those companies had received patents, products, and sales as a result. The companies also reported that they often had agreements to keep the results of research secret beyond the time needed to file a patent. These relationships need greater scrutiny.

Bodenheimer, T. (2000). “Uneasy Alliance — Clinical Investigators and the Pharmaceutical Industry.” N Engl J Med 342(20): 1539-1544.
The author details the uncomfortable relationship between clinical investigators who carry out research on new drugs and industry that has a powerful vested interest in the success of their products. Conflicts of interest are widespread with adverse consequences for the science.

Boyd, E. A. and L. A. Bero (2000). “Assessing Faculty Financial Relationships With Industry: A Case Study.” JAMA 284(17): 2209-2214.
The authors reviewed disclosure forms at UCSF to determine more about clinical and basic science faculty relationships with industry. By 1999, almost 7.6% of faculty investigators reported personal financial ties with sponsors of their research, including paid speaking engagements 34%. 33% had consulting agreements, and 32% involved the investigator holding a position on a scientific advisory board or board of directors. 14% involved equity ownership, and 12% involved multiple relationships. The advisory panel recommended managing perceived conflicts of interest in 26% of the cases. They considered this to be a growing problem that required management.

Boyd, E. A., M. K. Cho, et al. (2003). “Financial Conflict-of-Interest Policies in Clinical Research: Issues for Clinical Investigators.” Acad Med 78(8): 769-774.
They questioned faculty at UCSF and Stanford who conducted clinical research about their knowledge of and attitudes towards conflict of interest policies. The campus COI policies were a mystery to more than half of those interviewed. Many investigators felt that, rather than the university, monitoring COIs was the job of professional societies, (who have no clout) the public (that understands nothing about this) and, individual investigators (who routinely engage in self-deception) should monitor conflicts of interest. Administrators and policymakers is have to find a way to convince investigators, both clinical and nonclinical, of the serious problems of bias and co-option associated with financial relationships with industry.

Brainard, J. (2001). Federal Rules on Conflicts of Interest in Biomedical Research Are Inadequate, GAO Finds. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington.
The GAO pointed out what everyone knew and was glad of, namely that COI regulations were weak and unenforceable.

Bramstedt, K. (2003). “Research subject advocates: to whom are they loyal?” Clin Invest Med 26(2): 64-9.
The author deals with the issue of conflicts of interest in the activities of Research Subject Advocates. This is based largely on who is paying them. Of course, the main issue is what are they paying them for. GCRC RSAs, for example are paid to support the subjects and they should normally operate in that manner. She deals with the Abiomed artificial heart case in which the subject advocate was sued as wrongly representing the institution. How hard is it for subjects to get the kind of support they need in difficult studies with considerable risk?

Brownlee, S. (2004). Doctors Without Borders: Why you can’t trust medical journals anymore. Washington Monthly.
This reporter discusses the Nemaroff case in which a physician wrote a review article for Nature Neuroscience in which he failed to reveal his many and profitable conflicts of interest in recommending drug treatments for psychiatric illness. She goes on to discuss in vivid terms the insidious downside of these conflicts and the great efforts made by industry to involve prominent physicians in supporting their drugs.

Calfee, J. E. (2001). “Pharmaceutical Price Controls and Patient Welfare.” Ann Intern Med 134(11): 1060-1064.
He argues forcefully against price controls for drugs as inhibiting innovation and eliminating the risk capitol necessary to bring new ideas to market by killing incentive.
Campbell, E. G., J. S. Weissman, et al. (2001). “Market Competition and Patient-oriented Research: The Results of a National Survey of Medical School Faculty.” Acad Med 76(11): 1119-1126.
They tried to determine the impact of carrying out clinical care in a competitive environment on research productivity by surveying research faculty (2336 responses). They found that both basic and clinical research productivity was adversely affected by the need to do more clinical care in the most competitive markets. Good study demonstrating the impact of changing priorities for survival.

Cech, T. and J. Leonard (2001). “Science and business. Conflicts of interest–moving beyond disclosure.” Science 291(5506): 989.
As director of the Howard Hughes Institute the author makes his point about conflicts of interest in research and indicates a strong position in avoiding them.

Cho, M., R. Shohara, et al. (2000). “Policies on faculty conflicts of interest at US universities.” JAMA 284(17): 2203-8.
This excellent study has become somewhat dated because of the impacts of studies and changing policies secondary to various forces acting on universities. It reviewed COI policies of 89/100 polled Institutions. They found that there was great variability in types of relationships that were controlled, the financial limits, and the disclosures required. They recommended much more specific and consistent rules throughout the country.

Coyle, S. L. (2002). “Physician-Industry Relations. Part 1: Individual Physicians.” Ann Intern Med 136(5): 396-402.
This is part 1 of a 2-part paper on ethics in physician-industry relationships. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; gives recommendations to medical education providers and medical professional societies. While physicians and commerce share an interest in advancing medical knowledge they diverge in that the former is a fiduciary for the patient and the latter has responsibility primarily toward its investors. This can lead to conflicts of interest, biased reporting and issues with appropriate experimental design. While physicians and trainees think they are impervious to Drug Company blandishments, the companies know better. So physicians have to decide for themselves what gifts raise no problems and which do. A general guideline is inexpensive and no strings attached. But, in our society, the very act of accepting a gift creates an obligation. Other financial ties between physicians and industry include honorariums for speaking or writing and payment for doing clinical research. These also can influence a physician’s beliefs and practices. The paper goes into considerable detail.

Coyle, S. L. (2002). “Physician-Industry Relations. Part 2: Organizational Issues.” Ann Intern Med 136(5): 403-406.
This is part 2 of a 2-part paper on ethics and physician-industry relationsips. Part 1 offers advice to individual physicians; part 2 considers medical education providers and medical professional societies. While industry develops advances in medicine it also plays a key role in disseminating up-to-date medical information. The problem is bias and providers of the education must protect against that bias by presenting objective and balanced information. To do that, they must be careful of conditions under which money is collected to carry out their programs. They should insist on control of the content and conditions of the learning process Disclosure of industry sponsorship to students, faculty, and continuing medical education trainees is mandatory. This also applies to medical societies.

Dana, J and G. Lowenstein (2003). “A social science perspective on gifts to physicians from industry.” JAMA 290(2): 252-5.
The article uses behavioral science to examine the nature of conflicts of interest. It examines the “self-service bias” in our perceptions of fairness, indicating an individual’s notion of fairness is inherently biased toward his/her own self-interest. This makes the article very good in uniting cross-arguments into one inherent principle: human nature.

DeAngelis, C., P. Fontanarosa, et al. (2001). “Reporting financial conflicts of interest and relationships between investigators and research sponsors.” JAMA 286(1): 89-91.
JAMA was one of the first journals to insist on disclosure of COIs in all papers, editorials, etc coming out of their shop.

Drazen, J. M. and G. D. Curfman (2002). “Financial Associations of Authors.” N Engl J Med 346(24): 1901-1902.
Having come upon scathing criticism for publishing review articles written by persons with substantial conflicts of interest without identifying those interests, the authors (editors of NEJM) reiterate past policies and frame a new policy. They ended up, eventually, requiring disclosure of all conflicts of interes, but not in this article.

Drazen, J. M. and G. Koski (2000). “To Protect Those Who Serve.” N Engl J Med 343(22): 1643-1645.
Patients submitting themselves to a clinical trial are inherently vulnerable; they understand the risk associated with their reward. When these clinical trials are industry-sponsored and may contain ambiguous COIs, they are in direct conflict with the patients’ interests and therefore violate the physician-patient bond. This article calls for physicians to consider this when enrolling patients in clinical trials.

Duyk, G. (2003). “Attrition and Translation.” Science 302(5645): 603-605.
The recently published NIH Roadmap proposes that public-sector science should place increased emphasis on the development of new therapeutics and diagnostics based on the fruits of fundamental research. Such “translational research” activities, traditionally the province of the private sector, have long been compromised by high rates of attrition (failure during the course of preclinical or clinical development of therapeutics). Attrition has led to growing financial costs, as well as opportunity costs. The new focus offers a way to reverse these trends, especially if the scientific community can improve on its ability to reconcile molecular genetic research with integrative organ- and organism-based research.

Eichenwald, K. and G. Kolata (1999). When physicians double as entrepreneurs. Hidden interests: a special report. NY Times (Print). New York City: A1, C16-17. November 30, 1999.
A very important report worth noting and reading. It chronicles not only COI’s in medicine, but also the culture around them, questioning whether physician-inventors can ethically promote their products. Although there is much to be gained from new technology and increased competition, much is lost when physicians ignore patient interests and focus on profits.
http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?sec=health
&res=9D07E6D6103FF933A05752C1A96F958260

Elliott, C. (2001). “Pharma Buys a Conscience. Bioethicists increasingly find their work underwritten by pharmaceutical companies. Who passes on the ethics of ethicists?” The American Prospect 12(17): 16-20.
Do as I say, not as I do. Does that apply to bioethicists? Unfortunately developing a center on bioethics requires lots of money and the usual deep pockets, drug and other companies seen to be the most willing sources of funding. This article bears some of the funding sources of prominent bioethics programs and questions bioethicists’ behavior in the face of drug company dependence. He also indicates support of IRB members, of the FDA and of bioethics consultants tends to build favorable reviews.

Field, K. (2004). Medical School Reaches Agreement with Cancer Survivors in Suit over Canceled Study. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
If a study promises a therapeutic regimen and the company decides that the agent is not worth pursuing from the preliminary data, it can cancel the study. The participants argued that they were promised a full course of treatment by the university and sued.

Friedberg, M., B. Saffran, et al. (1999). “Evaluation of Conflict of Interest in Economic Analyses of New Drugs Used in Oncology.” JAMA 282(15): 1453-1457.
Recent studies have found that when investigators have financial relationships with pharmaceutical or product manufacturers, they are less likely to criticize the safety or efficacy of these agents. In this study of a number of oncology drugs of different kinds, when comparing company vs non-profit supported studies, it was found that overstatement of positive results were less of a problem than a reduced likelihood of reporting unfavorable qualitative conclusions.

Friedman, P. J. (2002). “The Impact of Conflict of Interest on Trust in Science.” Sci Eng Ethics 8(3): 413-420.
This paper is a deep analysis of the corrosive effects of conflicts of interest on trust in schience, with the public and even among investigators. This lack of trust can have an adverse effect on the scientific record as well. Disclosure, our major method of dealing with COIs is really inadequate even if it were well-and completely carried out. We need new rules and new approaches and the author discusses some possibilities. He points out that managing COIs is not institutions of learning’s best suite and that institutions can get into COI problems themselves.

Gelijns, A. C. and S. O. Thier (2002). “Medical Innovation and Institutional Interdependence: Rethinking University-Industry Connections.” JAMA 287(1): 72-77.
The authors attempt to present a balanced account of the great benefits associated with Industry-Academic collaborations in research and development and the negative impacts of the relationships. This paper reviews institutional patterns of innovations and suggests organizational and public policy implications. This is important reading because many of the papers in this area deal with the negative aspects of university-industry relations and do not deal with the importance of these collaborations for advances.

Hahn, R. (2002). “Conflicts of Interest and the False Comfort of “Full Disclosure”.” Professional Ethics Report 15(4).
The concept that revealing conflicts of interest in all presentations and publications eliminates their insidious effects on research. Not true, this article claims. The problem is that other mechanisms of control severely limit the incomes of successful scientists.

Hall, S. S. (2001). Claritin and Schering-Plough: A Prescription for Profit. The New York Times. New York. March 11, 2001.
This article purports to show that Schering used inadequate science to demonstrate that a mediocre antihistamine was less soporific than the older variety and therefore supplanted the older versions at great cost to society. Ironically, branded clariton sells well as an over-the -counter antihistamine even though it is expensive.

Hart, D. (2002). “The “Corporatization” of Science.” Science 295: 439.
This letter reviews the history of the support of basic research after WWII and reviews the changes in the scientific community that supported Bayh-Dole and indicated the importance of continuing attention to the new relationships developing as a result.

Horton, R. (2004). “The Dawn of McScience.” The New York Review.
This review of Seldon Krimsky’s book Science in the Private Interest: Has the Lure of Profits Corrupted Biomedical Research? The reviewer indicates that Krimsky produced a polemic indicating that declaring conflicts of interest will not solve the problems but that the separation of science from industry never truly existed and that, to some extent, the moral requirement to tell the truth in science was always blemished when it related to practical products. The Nancy Oliveri case, as well as the purchase of investigators and physicians by gift giving of pharmaceutical houses, are thoroughly discussed. I think that we are moving in the direction of balance by now, but my naivete may be showing.

Johns, M. M. E., M. Barnes, et al. (2003). “Restoring Balance to Industry-Academia Relationships in an Era of Institutional Financial Conflicts of Interest: Promoting Research While Maintaining Trust.” JAMA 289(6): 741-746.
This paper deals with University-Industry relationships from the point of view of the research managers and other leaders at academic institutions. The authors discuss divestiture, firewalls and other methods to ensure that industrial affiliations do not corrupt the activities of the university and adversely affect the public trust.

Johnston, J. (2004). “Outing the Conflicted: Et Tu, NIH?” Science 303(5664): 1610b-.
This report outlines the findings on NIH senior investigator and administrator conflicts of interest and their potentially serious consequences.

Kaiser, J. (2004). “BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH: Feeling the Heat, NIH Tightens Conflict-of-Interest Rules.” Science 305(5680): 25-26.
This news article describes the first responses of NIH administration to revelations about intramural conflicts of interest.

Kaiser, J. (2004). “NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH: Paid Consulting: Good for the Staff, Not for the Chiefs.” Science 304(5673): 936a-937.
A news report on the extent of NIH staff involvement in conflicts of interest.

Kaiser, J. (2005). “CONFLICT OF INTEREST: NIH Chief Clamps Down on Consulting and Stock Ownership.” Science 307(5711): 824-825.
A news report on the NIH ruling on conflicts of interest among its employees.

Kassirer, J. P. and M. Angell (1993). “Financial Conflicts of Interest in Biomedical Research.” N Engl J Med 329(8): 570-571.
An early voice indicating the growing involvement of with industry and the conflicts of interest and of commitment they engender. Worthwhile reading.

Kassirer, J. P. and M. Angell (1997). “The High Price of Product Endorsement.” N Engl J Med 337(10): 700-.
Product endorsement by a professional or scientific organization raises serious ethical problems. The endorsement is worth a lot to the product’s company and it is willing to pay well for it. The question is whether the organization has done the comparative testing to determine whether this is a superior product worth endorsing. Organizations take risks to their credibility and financial risks when they endorse a product.

Kjaergard, L. L. and B. Als-Nielsen (2002). “Association between competing interests zand authors’ conclusions: epidemiological study of randomized clinical trials published in the BMJ.” BMJ 325(7358): 249-.
To assess the association between competing interests and authors’ conclusions in randomized clinical trials the authors conducted an epidemiological study of randomized clinical trials published in the BMJ from January 1997 to June 2001. Financial competing interests were defined as funding by for profit organizations and other competing interests as personal, academic, or political. They reviewed159 trials from 12 medical specialties.. Authors’ conclusions were significantly more positive towards the experimental intervention in trials funded by for profit organizations alone compared with trials without competing interests, trials funded by both for profit and non-profit organizations, and trials with other competing interests. The authors’ conclusions were that randomized clinical trials significantly favored experimental interventions if financial competing interests were declared. Other competing interests were not significantly associated with authors’ conclusions.

Krimsky, S. and L. Rothenberg (1998). “Financial interest and its disclosure in scientific publications.” JAMA 280(3): 225-6.
Journal policies and requirements of funding agencies on financial disclosure of authors and grant applicants have divided editors and scientists who disagree on whether such policies can improve the integrity of science or manage conflicts of interest. Those opposed to such disclosure policies argue that financial interest is one of many interests held by scientists, is the least scientifically dangerous, and should not be singled out. Those who favor open reporting of financial interests argue that full disclosure removes the suspicion that something of relevance to objectivity is being hidden and allows readers to form their own opinions on whether a conflict of interest exists and what relevance that has to the study. The authors believe that the scientific community and the public will be best served by open publication of financial disclosures for readers and reviewers to evaluate.

Lawler, A. (2003). “UNIVERSITY-INDUSTRY COLLABORATION: Last of the Big-Time Spenders?” Science 299(5605): 330-333.
This review of the fate of large corporate gifts for research to universities suggests that the universities continued to do their thing but that the yield of marketable products to the dopanies was small. He concludes that on balance the agreements were win-win.

Levinsky, N. G. (2002). “Nonfinancial Conflicts of Interest in Research.” N Engl J Med 347(10): 759-761.
The author considers his longstanding interest in his career and how that might have affected his objectivity in research. A worthwhile read.

Lo, B., L. Wolf, et al. (2000). “Conflict-of-interest policies for investigators in clinical trials.” N Engl J Med 343(22): 1616-20.
There is substantial concern that financial conflicts of interest on the part of investigators conducting clinical trials may compromise the well being of research subjects. They analyzed policies governing conflicts of interest at the 10 medical schools in the United States that receive the largest amount of research funding from the National Institutes of Health. All 10 universities required that faculty members disclose financial interests to university officials. They conclude that policies governing conflicts of interest at leading medical schools in the United States vary widely. We suggest that university-based investigators and research staff be prohibited from holding stock, stock options, or decision-making positions in a company that may reasonably appear to be affected by the results of their clinical research. Of the 10 medical schools we studied, only 1 had a policy that was close to this standard.

Martin, J. B. and D. L. Kasper (2000). “In Whose Best Interest? Breaching the Academic-Industrial Wall.” N Engl J Med 343(22): 1646-1649.

McCarthy, M. (2000). “Conflict of interest taints vaccine approval process, charges US report.” The Lancet 356(9232): 838.

McCrary, S., C. Anderson, et al. (2000). “A national survey of policies on disclosure of conflicts of interest in biomedical research.” N Engl J Med 343(22): 1621-6.
Conflicts of interest pose a threat to the integrity of scientific research. The current regulations of the U.S. Public Health Service and the National Science Foundation require that medical schools and other research institutions report the existence of conflicts of interest to the funding agency but allow the institutions to manage conflicts internally. They surveyed all medical schools (127) and other research institutions (170) that received more than $5 million in total grants annually from the National Institutes of Health or the National Science Foundation; 48 journals in basic science and clinical medicine; and 17 federal agencies in order to analyze their policies on conflicts of interest. There was a very high response rate.. Fifteen of the 250 institutions (6 percent)–5 medical schools and 10 other research institutions–reported that they had no policy on conflicts of interest. Among the institutions that had policies, there was marked variation in the definition and management of conflicts. They concluded that there is substantial variation among policies on conflicts of interest at medical schools and other research institutions. This variation, combined with the fact that many scientific journals and funding agencies do not require disclosure of conflicts of interest, suggests that the current standards may not be adequate to maintain a high level of scientific integrity.

Moses, H., III, E. Braunwald, et al. (2002). “Collaborating with Industry — Choices for the Academic Medical Center.” N Engl J Med 347(17): 1371-1375.
This is a core paper that defines the issues in the various relationships between industry and academic medical centers. They take a drastic step in outlawing (at Harvard) most conflicts of interest with industry.

U. S. G AO (2003). University Research: Most Federal Agencies Need to Better Protect against Financial Conflicts of Interest. G. A. Office.
This extensive study of Federal agencies and universities indicated that at the time of the report protection against conflicts of interest was inadequate. Among Federal agencies only the NIH and NSF had policies requiring review and reporting of conflicts of interest related to research support.

Orlowski, J. and L. Wateska (1992). “The effects of pharmaceutical firm enticements on physician prescribing patterns. There’s no such thing as a free lunch.”Chest 102(1): 270-3.
They examined the impact on physician prescribing patterns of pharmaceutical firms offering all-expenses-paid trips to popular sunbelt vacation sites to attend symposia sponsored by a pharmaceutical company. Drug usage patterns were tracked for 22 months preceding each symposium and for 17 months after each symposium. Ten physicians invited to each symposium were interviewed about the likelihood that such an enticement would affect their prescribing patterns. A significant increase in the prescribing pattern of both drugs occurred following the symposia. These changed prescribing patterns were also significantly different from the national usage patterns of the two drugs by hospitals with more than 500 beds and major medical centers over the same period of time. These alterations in prescribing patterns occurred even though the majority of physicians who attended the symposia believed that such enticements would not alter their prescribing patterns.

Patricia, B., D. Jocelyn, et al. (2002). “MEDICINE: Clinical Trials and Industry.” Science 297(5590): 2211-.

Royal Australasian College of Physicians (2000). Ethical Guidelines in the Relationship Between Physicians and the Pharmaceutical Industry.
The Australians were able to agree on a set of ethical guidelines related to physicians and the pharmaceutical industry. They were opposed to most forms of gifts and proposed a skeptical position. It was not clear the extent to which these guidelines penetrated the profession..

Psaty, B. M., C. D. Furberg, et al. (2004). “Potential for Conflict of Interest in the Evaluation of Suspected Adverse Drug Reactions: Use of Cerivastatin and Risk of Rhabdomyolysis.” JAMA 292(21): 2622-2631.
In recent years, US patients have increasingly been the first to receive new medications, some of which are subsequently discovered to have suspected adverse drug reactions (SADRs). As a result, the challenge of early detection has largely shifted to the US postmarketing systems. They sought to review the association between the use of cerivastatin sodium and the risk of rhabdomyolysis in an effort to illustrate the operation and limitations of the current US postmarketing safety-surveillance system. In the published literature, cerivastatin was associated with much larger risks of rhabdomyolysis than other statins. Analyses suggested that compared with atorvastatin calcium, cerivastatin monotherapy substantially increased the risk of rhabdomyolysis. To our knowledge, these findings were not disseminated or published. The company continued to conduct safety studies, some of them inadequately designed to assess the risk of rhabdomyolysis, until cerivastatin was removed from the market in August 2001. They concluded that despite limitations of the available data, the asymmetry between the information available to the company and the information available to patients and physicians seems striking. A subjective element is present in the effort to infer whether or not the occurrence of untoward outcomes in users of a particular drug was actually the consequence of the use of that drug, and, under the current system, a pharmaceutical company’s appraisal of SADRs may be influenced by economic considerations. Such an appraisal would best be made by an independent group. They claim US Congress should mandate and provide adequate support for independent reviews and analysis of postmarketing data.

Psaty, B. M. and D. Rennie (2003). “Stopping Medical Research to Save Money: A Broken Pact With Researchers and Patients.” JAMA 289(16): 2128-2131.
This report documents a case in which a drug company decided that its cancer drug was no longer worth developing and stopped a trial even though they had promised a longer trial in writing. Both the company and the institution were sued.

Ramsay, S. (2001). “Online database reveals researchers’ industry ties.” The Lancet 357(9269): 1977.
This neat idea reveals the great extent to which those conducting clinical research have industry income associated with that activity. The list proceeds apace.

Roberts, T. G., Jr. and B. A. Chabner (2004). “Beyond Fast Track for Drug Approvals.” N Engl J Med 351(5): 501-505.
Clinical Trials. Deals with fast track mechanism and the importance of selecting probable responses to each new drug. Proposes “selective approval mechanism.”

Scherer, F. M. (2004). “The Pharmaceutical Industry — Prices and Progress.” N Engl J Med 351(9): 927-932.
This report examines the cost and pricing structures of pharmaceutical companies and tries to deal constructively with the demands for lower prices while at the same time supporting costly research. It is a very wor thwhile read.

Schulman, K. A., D. M. Seils, et al. (2002). “A National Survey of Provisions in Clinical-Trial Agreements between Medical Schools and Industry Sponsors.” N Engl J Med 347(17): 1335-1341.
Concerned about threats to the integrity of clinical trials in a research environment increasingly controlled by private interests, the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) has issued revised guidelines for investigators’ participation in the study design, access to data, and control over publication. It is unclear whether research conducted at academic institutions adheres to these new standards. From November 2001 through January 2002, they interviewed officials at U.S. medical schools about provisions in their institutions’ agreements with industry sponsors of multicenter clinical trials. The results demonstrated limited adherence to the standards embodied in the new ICMJE guidelines. Scores for coordinating-center agreements were somewhat higher for most survey items. They suggest that a reevaluation of the process of contracting for clinical research is urgently needed.

Univ. of California Senate. (2004). Report of the University Committee on Research Policy: Problematic Restrictive Clauses in Contracts, Grants and Gifts for Research, University Committee on Research Policy.

Steinbrook, R. (2004). “Conflicts of Interest at the NIH — Resolving the Problem.” N Engl J Med 351(10): 955-957.
This intermediate report discusses the various ideas that were considered at the NIH in an attempt to silence criticism while maintaining leeway for extra income for investigators.

The, Editor. (2004). “Publishing Commentary by Authors with Potential Conflicts of Interest: When, Why, and How.” Ann Intern Med 141(1): 73-74.
This describes their policies at the time.

Weiss, R. (2004). NIH Bans Collaboration With Outside Companies. Washington Post. September 24, 2004.
This was the first response to the revelations of the extent of conflicts of interest at the NIH.

Williams, S. (2002). “Handle With Care: Avoiding Financial Conflict of Interest in Clinical Research.” Academic Physician and Scientist January/February: 1, 10-12.
This paper begins by discussion the plight of the Fred Hutchison Cancer Research Center when sued by research subjects’ families. The issue of the Center or its physicians derving financial benefit from the research put the organization in a weak position. This has led to the two AAMC reports on individual and institutional conflicts of interest that are referred to elsewhere in this bibliography.

Willman, D. (2001). Risk Was Known as FDA OKed Fatal Drug. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA. March 11, 2001.
The article chronicles Warner-Lambert’s push and subsequent approval of the kidney drug Rezulin. Although liver damage was apparent in the clinical trial, Warner-Lambert’s “partnership” with the FDA allowed for swift authorization. This should be a warning to all regulatory bodies about attaching themselves too closely to studies.

Willman, D. (2003). Stealth Merger: Drug Companies and Government Medical Research. Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles: A1, A32. December 7, 2003.
Some of the National Institutes of Health’s top scientists are also collecting paychecks and stock options from biomedical firms. Increasingly, such deals are kept secret.

Willman, D. (2004). The National Institutes of Health: Public Servant or Private Marketer? Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles, CA: A29. December 22, 2004.
Another in a series of Willman’s articles that deals with conflicts of interest. This one points out key scientists in the NIH with blatant COIs and the effect this has on research.

Willman, D. (2005). NIH to Ban Deals With Drug Firms. Los Angeles Times. LA, CA: A1, A17. February 1, 2005.
After initially breaking the COIs at the NIH, Willman announced the ban placed on industry-physician consulting relationships as well as other financial interests. These two Willman pieces on the NIH were monumentally influential in bringing to light gross inconsistencies in policy and their negative effects on the public.

Ziegler, M., P. Lew, et al. (1995). “The accuracy of drug information from pharmaceutical sales representatives.” JAMA 273(16): 1296-8.
To provide quantitative data about the accuracy of the information about drugs presented to physicians by pharmaceutical sales representatives the authors investigated. one hundred six statements about drugs made during 13 presentations by pharmaceutical representatives. Statements were rated inaccurate if they contradicted the 1993 Physicians’ Desk Reference or material quoted or handed out by the sales representative. They found that twelve (11%) of 106 statements about drugs were inaccurate. All 12 inaccurate statements were favorable toward the promoted drug, whereas 39 (49%) of 79 accurate statements were favorable. None of 15 statements about competitors’ drugs were favorable, but all were accurate, significantly differing from statements about promoted drugs. In a survey of 27 physicians who attended these presentations, seven recalled a false statement made by a pharmaceutical representative, and 10 said information from the representatives influenced the way they prescribed drugs. They claim that eleven percent of the statements made by pharmaceutical representatives about drugs contradicted information readily available to them. Physicians generally failed to recognize the inaccurate statements.

Brennan, T. A., D. J. Rothman, et al. (2006). “Health Industry Practices That Create the physician’s roles Conflicts of Interest: A Policy Proposal for Academic Medical Centers.” JAMA 295(4): 429-433.
Conflicts of interest between physicians’ commitment to patient care and the blandishments that pharmaceutical companies and their representatives lavish on them impair professionalism in medicine. Although the involved groups, including the Federal government have instituted self-regulation of marketing, research into gift receipt and giving indicates that current controls will not satisfactorily protect the interests of patients. More stringent regulation is necessary, including the elimination or modification of common practices. They propose a policy for academic medical centers to take the lead in eliminating these conflicts of interest that impair patient care.

Stossel, T. (2005). Mere Magazines. The Wall Street Journal. Washington, DC: A16. December 30, 2005.
In this brief article Dr. Stossel raises important questions about the arrogance of major medical journals and their persistent negative attitude towards the companies that are responsible for all the advances in medicine that we have seen over the past half-century. Whether or not you end up agreeing with the arguments, this is a refreshing contrast with the uniformity of the beating big Pharma has been taking in the medical literature and the media.

(2004). Financial Relationships and Interests in Research Involving Human Subjects: Guidance for Human Subject Protection. DHHS. Services, Federal Register. 69 (92): 26393-7.
This federal guideline asks IRBs and institutions to consider a variety of means to eliminate, document, disclose, and manage conflicts of interest. It is not overly prescriptive but it expects institutions to actively and effectively deal with conflicts of interest both of individual investigators and of IRB members. Conflict of interest committees distinct from IRBs are expected to be developed. Required reading for research administrators.

Brody, B., C. Anderson, et al. (2003). “Expanding Disclosure of Conflicts of Interest: Views of Stakeholders.” IRB Ethics and Human Research 25(1): 1-8.

Kim, S. Y. H., R. W. Millard, et al. (2004). “Potential research participants’ views regarding researcher and institutional financial conflicts of interest.” J Med Ethics 30(1): 73-79.
This empirical study of the attitudes of potential research subjects towards the revelation of financial conflicts of interest and their existence gave strong evidence that subjects wanted to know. Some would be less inclined to participate in the proposed study knowing of the conflicts of interest. A very nice study.
http://jme.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/30/1/73

Taylor, R. and J. Giles (2005). “Cash interests taint drug advice.” Nature 437(7062): 1070.
This paper and the accompanying editorial deal with groups empanelled by professional societies primarily to write “evidence based” clinical practice guidelines. A study by Materal found that substantial number of the panel members receive income or own stock in companies whose products are under consideration. The influence of these companies may be indirect in promoting drug use in the filed or to encourage use of a specific product. Better methods of developing guidelines are suggested.
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/352/21/2202

Brody, H. and F. G. Miller (2003). “The clinician-investigator: unavoidable but manageable tension.” Kennedy Institute of Ethics J 13(4): 329-46.
This paper addresses the two roles of the Clinician-Investigator as scientist and caregiver. The authors indicate that research is very different from care and thus there is ethical tension in doing both (the difference position). Those that argue that the physician’s role is similar in both circumstances (similarity position) are claimed to be in error because the position denies the ethical tension. A very worthwhile read.

Mello, M. M., B. R. Clarridge, et al. (2005). “Academic Medical Centers’ Standards for Clinical-Trial Agreements with Industry.” N Engl J Med 352(21): 2202-2210.
This critical paper delineates the weaknesses of academic institutions in writing contracts that protect data and investigators from bias. This is very important reading.
http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/abstract/352/21/2202

(2003). “American Society of Clinical Oncology: Background for Update of Conflict of Interest Policy.” J Clin Oncol 21(12): 2387-2393.
The new version of their conflict of interest policy that is based on complete disclosure and a number of prohibitions. A good set of rules that others could emulate.
http://www.jco.org/cgi/content/full/21/12/2387

Bentley, J. P. and P. G. Thacker (2004). “The influence of risk and monetary payment on the research participation decision making process.” J Med Ethics 30(3): 293-298.
This questionnaire study attempted to determine the impact of various levels of payment on willingness to participate in a trial. Knowledge of the characteristics of a trial and whether it would lead to behavior damaging the quality of the study. Money was an incentive. The other effects did not seem to be present.
http://jme.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/30/3/293

Miller, F. G. and A. F. Shorr (2002). “Ethical Assessment of Industry-Sponsored Clinical Trials*: A Case Analysis.” Chest 121(4): 1337-1342.
These authors review a single randomized control trial of asthma therapy in children for its ethical characteristics and find it faulty. This is worthwhile reading.
http://www.chestjournal.org/cgi/content/abstract/121/4/1337

Schroter, S., J. Morris, et al. (2004). “Does the type of competing interest statement affect readers’ perceptions of the credibility of research? Randomised trial.” BMJ 328(7442): 742-743.
An empirical study noting a competing financial interest on receiving research support on various aspects of a study. Believability and relevance were both significantly reduced in the presence of a financial conflict. All in all, a weak paper, but provocative.
http://bmj.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/328/7442/742

Resnik, D. (2004). “Disclosing conflicts of interest to research subjects: an ethical and legal analysis.” Accountability in Research 11(2): 141-59.
The author makes the case that investigators have an ethical and now a legal obligation to disclose their conflicts of interest in a manner such that the study participants will have enough information to sign an informed consent. He argues that disclosure of conflicts of interest should be required in informed consent documents.

Campbell, E., B. Moy, et al. (2004). “Institutional academic industry relationships: results of interviews with university leaders.” Accountability in Research 11(2): 103-18.
The investigators conducted interviews of university leaders to get their viewpoints on academic-industry relationships. Generally, there were many such relationships and these were generally thought to be constructive. There was understanding that conflicts of interest were pervasive and sometimes risky.

Holmes, D. R., B. G. Firth, et al. (2004). “Conflict of interest.” American Heart Journal 147(2): 228.
This report of an expert meeting reviews conflict of interest issues from the level of the investigator on to the FDA. It has become somewhat dated because of the recent NIH revelations and rule development and progress in registering clinical trials.

Bernstein, M. (2003). “Conflict of interest: It is ethical for an investigator to also be the primary care-giver in a clinical trial.” Journal of Neuro-Oncology 63(2): 107.
The author addresses one of the issues of the day. He comes down in opposition to the AAME report on individual conflicts of interest in clinical research, as supporting such research in many instances.
http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=articledoi:10.1023/
A:1023959021758

Komesaroff, P. (2005). “Ethical issues in the relationships with industry: an ongoing challenge. New Guidelines open for public comment.” J Paediatr Child Health 41(11): 558-60.
In this paper the author explains the extent to which medical decision-making in Australia is influenced by industry. He provides guidelines to Australian physicians as to their behaviors, including the rejection of gifts, subsidized attendance at meeting, and samples. They should not endorse specific products. Clinicians should also avoid recruiting their patients into studies in which they are investigators, as well as only doing studies in which there is a commitment to make the results public. This should be followed by an empirical study on compliance.
http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1440-1754.2005.00719.x

Topol, E. J. and D. Blumenthal (2005). “Physicians and the Investment Industry.” JAMA 293(21): 2654-2657.
In this excellent paper the authors identify and discuss the new practice of clinical researchers providing information to investment groups as consultants. In a number of instances it appears that confidential information was leaked that gave investors significant advantages. The questions as to the ethical standing of this activity versus the right of professors to communicate about what they know was introduced. How can we be sure that the information is in the public domain before discussing it?
http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/293/21/2654

Weiss, R. (2004). NIH to Set Stiff Restrictions on Outside Consulting. Washington Post. Washington, D.C.: A01. August 4, 2004.
After a scandal revealed by the LA Times in which many NIH personnel including investigators and those with responsibilities for dispensing grants and contracts received substantial sums from drug and biotech companies the NIH took. Head of investigations by congress, internal reviews, and the report of an independent expert committee developed rules for NIH personnel. Familiar rules once being adopted by most major research institutions.

Aldrich, John (1995). “Correlations Genuine and Spurious in Pearson and Yule”. Statistical Science 10 (4): 364–376. JSTOR 2246135.

Lawlor DA, Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S (June 2004). “Commentary: the hormone replacement-coronary heart disease conundrum: is this the death of observational epidemiology?”. Int J Epidemiol 33 (3): 464–7. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh124. PMID 15166201.

Quinn, Graham E.; Shin, Chai H.; Maguire, Maureen G.; Stone, Richard A. (May 1999). “Myopia and ambient lighting at night”. Nature 399 (6732): 113–4. doi:10.1038/20094. PMID 10335839.

Ohio State University Research News, March 9, 2000. Night lights don’t lead to nearsightedness, study suggests

Zadnik, Karla; Jones, Lisa A.; Irvin, Brett C.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Shin, Julie A.; Mutti, Donald O. (2000). “Vision: Myopia and ambient night-time lighting”. Nature 404 (6774): 143–144. doi:10.1038/35004661.

Gwiazda, J.; Ong, E.; Held, R.; Thorn, F. (2000). “Vision: Myopia and ambient night-time lighting”. Nature 404 (6774): 144–144. doi:10.1038/35004663.

Stone, Richard A.; Maguire, Maureen G.; Quinn, Graham E. (2000). “Vision: reply: Myopia and ambient night-time lighting”. Nature 404 (6774): 144–144. doi:10.1038/35004665.

Carducci, Bernardo J. (2009). The Psychology of Personality: Viewpoints, Research, and Applications (2nd ed.). John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-4051-3635-8.

Morris, William Edward (2001). “David Hume”. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

Lloyd, A.C. (1976). “The principle that the cause is greater than its effect”. Phronesis 21 (2): 146–156. JSTOR 4181986.

Holland, Paul W. (1986). “Statistics and Causal Inference”. Journal of the American Statistical Association 81 (396): 945–960. doi:10.1080/01621459.1986.10478354.

Gu J, Li XB, Tian LH. [Scientific research accomplishment of medical staff]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013 Mar 12;93(10):735-7. [ Links ]

Kinser PA, Robins JL. Control group design: enhancing rigor in research of mind-body therapies for depression. Evid-Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:140467. [ Links ]

Bertone J. Ethical, scientific and practical standards in clinical practice research. Equine Vet J. 2013 Jul;45(4):391-3.

Explorable.com (Jan 7, 2009). Sampling Error. Retrieved Mar 30, 2015 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/sampling-error

Klass, Gary. Just Plain Data Analysis: Common Statistical Fallacies in Analyses of Social Indicator Data. Department of Politics and Government, Illinois State University. Statlit.org. ~2008. Accessed March 25, 2014. http://www.statlit.org/pdf/2008KlassASA.pdf.
Goldacre, Ben (2008). Bad Science. HarperCollins Publishers. pp. 97–99. ISBN 978-0-00-728319-4.

“Devious deception in displaying data: Cherry picking”, Science or Not, April 3, 2012, retrieved 16 February 2015
Steven Novella, “Science-Based Medicine”, A Skeptic In Oz, retrieved 16 February 2015

“Typical Depression Patients Excluded from Drug Trials; exclusion criteria: is it “cherry picking”?”. The Brown University Psychopharmacology Update (Wiley Periodicals) 13 (5): 1–3. May 2002. ISSN 1068-5308. Based on the studies:
Posternak, MA; Zimmerman, M; Keitner, GI; Miller, IW (February 2002). “A reevaluation of the exclusion criteria used in antidepressant efficacy trials”. The American journal of psychiatry 159 (2): 191–200. PMID 11823258.

Zimmerman, M; Mattia, JI; Posternak, MA (March 2002). “Are subjects in pharmacological treatment trials of depression representative of patients in routine clinical practice?”. The American journal of psychiatry 159 (3): 469–73. PMID 11870014.

 

Zimmerman, M; Mattia, JI; Posternak, MA (March 2002). “Are subjects in pharmacological treatment trials of depression representative of patients in routine clinical practice?”. The American journal of psychiatry 159 (3): 469–73. PMID 11870014.
Rensberger, B. 2000. “The Nature of Evidence.” Science 289(July): 61.

Research!America. 2001. Research!America. Poll Data Booklet. Volume 2. Alexandria, VA: Research!America.

Rosa, L., Rosa, E., Sarner, L., and Barrett, S. 1998. “A Close Look at Therapeutic Touch.” Journal of the American Medical Association. 279(13): 1005–10.

PMT000: Practical Pathology for Massage Therapists

LESSON 1: Review of Medical Terminology

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage Milady 4th edition 2007

Werner, Ruth A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology, 5th Edition 2012

Ehrlich, Ann Medical Terminology for Health Professions Medical Terminology for Health Professions Cengage Learning; 6th edition (July 2, 2008)

Banay, George L. An Introduction to Medical Terminology I. Greek and Latin Derivations http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC194697/

LESSON 2: Controlling Infectious Agents in the Massage Room

McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Understanding microbes in sickness and in health. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/microbes/PDF/microbesbook.pdf

Ryan KJ; Ray CG (editors) (2004). Sherris Medical Microbiology (4th ed.). McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-8385-8529-9.

Salvo Susan G. Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2 edition (December 26, 2008)

Prakash S. Bisen, Mousumi Debnath, G. B. Prasad Microbes: Concepts and Applications Wiley-Blackwell; 1 edition (July 24, 2012)

Whitman WB, Coleman DC, Wiebe WJ; Coleman; Wiebe (1998). “Prokaryotes: the unseen majority”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 95 (12): 6578–83

Baron S, (editor) Medical Microbiology. 4th edition.

Carol Turkington, Bonnie Ashby The Encyclopedia of Infectious Diseases Facts on File; 3 edition (April 2007)

LESSON 3: Conditions of the Integumentary System

Salvo Susan G. Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists, 2 edition (December 26, 2008)

The American Academy of Dermatology http://www.aad.org

The University of Maryland: Report on Psoriasis

http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/psoriasis

V. N. Sehgal (Anshan Publishers) Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Skin Diseases

Goldberg, David J, (Dermatologist) Acne and rosacea : epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101577494

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases Handout On Health: Atopic Dermatitis

http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Atopic_Dermatitis/default.asp

Acral lentiginous melanoma. A clinicopathologic entity.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7073361

National Institute of Health: Questions and Answers about Alopecia Areata

http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/alopecia_areata/

Calciphylaxis: A Review

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2989826/#

American Academy of Pediatrics

http://www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/skin/pages/Tinea-Infections-Ringworm-Athletes-Foot-Jock-Itch.aspx

Mosby’s Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.

Zaenglein AL, Thiboutot DM. Acne Vulgaris. In: Bolognia JL, Jorizzo JL, Schaffer JV, et al, eds.Dermatology. 3rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2012:chap 36.

http://umm.edu/health/medical/reports/articles/psoriasis

V. N. Sehgal (Anshan Publishers) Diagnosis and Treatment of Common Skin Diseases

Goldberg, David J, (Dermatologist) Acne and rosacea : epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101577494

Erysipelas and Cellulitis

National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases

http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/cellulitiserysipelas/pages/default.aspx

Habif TM. Bacterial infections. In: Habif TP, ed. Clinical Dermatology. 5th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Mosby Elsevier; 2009:chap 9.

Amber S. Tully, James S. Studdiford USMLE Images for the Boards: A Comprehensive Image-Based Review Elsevier Health Sciences.

Annie Morien, Massage & Skin Conditions AMTA http://www.amtamassage.org/uploads/cms/documents/ce_wi10_web.pdf

LESSON 4: Conditions of the Musculoskeletal System

Gückel C1, Nidecker A. Diagnosis of tears in rotator-cuff-injuries. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9430826

Sachin Kuber,Hernia Surgery Simplified,JP Medical Ltd, 2013

Emery AE. Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy – a 40 year retrospective. Neuromuscul Disord. 2000 Jun;10(4-5):228-32. Review. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10838246?dopt=Abstract

Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

Trollet C, Gidaro T, Klein P, et al. Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy. 2001 Mar 8 [Updated 2014 Feb 20]. In: Pagon RA, Adam MP, Ardinger HH, et al., editors. GeneReviews® [Internet]. Seattle (WA): University of Washington, Seattle; 1993-2014. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1126/

Alan E.H. Emery, Muscular Dystrophy Oxford University Press, Mar 6, 2008

Toda, Tatsushi; Kobayashi, Kondo-Lida, Sasaki, Nakamura (1 March 2000). “The Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy story”. Neuromuscular Disorders

Susan Sparks, MD, PhD, Susana Quijano-Roy, MD, PhD, Amy Harper, MD, Anne Rutkowski, MD, Erynn Gordon, MS, CGC, Eric P Hoffman, PhD, and Elena Pegoraro, MD, PhD. Congenital Muscular Dystrophy Overview http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK1291/

George Karpati, David Hilton-Jones, Robert C. Griggs (editors), Disorders of Voluntary Muscle, Cambridge University Press, Jul 12, 2001

Patellar dislocation has predisposing factors. A roentgenographic study on lateral and tangential views in patients and healthy controls. Mäenpää H1, Lehto MU.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9046505#

Floyd, R.T. (2009). Manual of structural kinesiology. New York, NY: McGraw-Hil

Dath, R., Chakravarthy, J., & Porter K.M. (2006) Patella dislocations http://tra.sagepub.com/content/8/1/5.short

Atkin DM, Fithian DC, Marangi KS, Stone ML, Dobson BE, Mendelsohn C (2000). “Characteristics of patients with primary acute lateral patellar dislocation and their recovery within the first 6 months of injury”. Am J Sports Med 28 (4): 472–9

Ziegler J, Thielemann F, Mayer-Athenstaedt C, Günther KP. [The natural history of developmental dysplasia of the hip: A metaanalysis of the published literature] [German]. Orthopade. May 17 2008;epub ahead of print. [Medline].

Bjerkreim I, Arseth PH. Congenital dislocation of the hip in Norway. Late diagnosis CDH in the years 1970 to 1974. Acta Paediatr Scand. May 1978;67(3):329-32. [Medline].

Carter CO, Wilkinson JA. Genetic and environmental factors in the etiology of congenital dislocation of the hip. Clin Orthop Relat Res. Mar-Apr 1964;33:119-28. [Medline].

http://www.bjj.boneandjoint.org.uk/content/44-B/2/292.full.pdf%2Bhtml

Oxford Textbook of Accident and Emergency Medicine 2nd edition; LESSON 9; Hip dilocations and acetabular fractures.

American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00352

Peterson L, Renström P. Sports injuries, their prevention and treatment. Informa HealthCare. (2001) ISBN:1853171190

Tendinopathy: Why the Difference Between Tendinitis and Tendinosis Matters Evelyn Bass, LMT, International Journal of Therapeutic Massage & Bodywork

LESSON 5: Conditions of the Nervous System

All information on the various forms of Encephalitis and Meningitis are provided care of the Center for Disease Control CDC.gov

Thigpen MC, Whitney CG, Messonnier NE, Zell ER, Lynfield R, Hadler JL, et al. Emerging Infections Programs Network. Bacterial meningitis in the United States, 1998-2007External Web Site Icon. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:2016-25.

Griffin JL. Temperature tolerance of pathogenic and nonpathogenic free-living amoebas. Science. 1972;178(63):869-70.

Stevens AR, Tyndall RL, Coutant CC, Willaert E. Isolation of the Etiological Agent of Primary Amoebic Meningoencephalitis from Artificially Heated Waters. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1977;34(6):701-705.

Yao, S.C.; Hart, A.D.; Terzella, M.J. (May 2013). “An evidence-based osteopathic approach to Parkinson disease”. Osteopathic Family Physician 5 (3): 96–101. doi:10.1016/j.osfp.2013.01.003.

de Lau LM, Breteler MM (June 2006). “Epidemiology of Parkinson’s disease”. Lancet Neurol. 5 (6): 525–35. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70471-9. PMID 16713924.

J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 2008;79:368-376 doi:10.1136/jnnp.2007.131045

J.R. Hughes, S.G. Bowes, A.L. Leeman, C.J. O’Neill, A.A. Deshmukh, P.W. Nicholson et al., Parkinsonian abnormality of foot strike: a phenomenon of ageing and/or one responsive to levodopa therapy?. Br J Clin Pharmacol 29 (1990), pp. 179–186

Bastiaan R. Bloem, Jeffrey M. Hausdorff, Jasper E. Visser, Nir Giladi “Falls and Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease: A Review of Two Interconnected, Episodic Phenomena” Movement Disorders Vol. 19, No. 8, 2004, pp. 871–884

Ruth Werner, LMP, NCTMB, Massage Therapy Foundation President, Peripheral Neuropathy, Massage Today March, 2008, Vol. 08, Issue 03

LESSON 6: Conditions of the Cardiovascular System

Antman EM. ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: pathology, pathophysiology, and clinical features. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsever; 2011:chap 54.

Susan G. Salvo, Mosby’s Pathology for Massage Therapists Elsevier Health Sciences, 2008

http://news.yahoo.com/kids-save-lives-performing-cpr-223900629.html

What is heart failure, The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hf/

What is Hemophilia, The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute

http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/hemophilia/

Is there a role for complementary therapy in the management of leukemia? Kathleen Wesa, MD and Barrie R Cassileth, PhD

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792198/

Blood Cancers: When Helpful Turns Harmful

pathology perspectives By Ruth Werner

Isselbacher EM. Diseases of the aorta. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 78.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

Genest J, Libby P. Lipoprotein disorders and cardiovascular disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P, eds. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 47.

Fairhurst RM, Wellems TE. Plasmodium species (Malaria). In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone; 2009:chap 275.

Gaziano JM, Ridker PM, Libby P. Primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. In: Bonow RO, Mann DL, Zipes DP, Libby P,eds. Braunwald’s Heart Disease: A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 49.

LESSON 7: Conditions of the Immune System.

Pasternack MS, Swartz MN. Lymphadenitis and lymphangitis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R, eds. Mandell, Douglas, and Bennett’s Principles and Practice of Infectious Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Elsevier Churchill-Livingstone; 2009:chap 92.

Fellowes D, Barnes K, Wilkinson SSM. Aromatherapy and massage for symptoms relief in patients with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2008, Iss 4.

Cassileth BR, Vickers AJ. Massage therapy for symptom control: outcome study at a major cancer centre. J Pain Symptom Manage 2004 Sep; 28 (3): 244-9.

Levin MJ, Weinberg A (2011). Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus) section of Infections: Viral and rickettsial. In WW Hay Jr et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment: Pediatrics, 20th ed., pp. 1131–1133. New York: McGraw Hill Medical.

Chronic fatigue syndrome information courtesy of the Center for Disease Control http://www.cdc.gov/cfs/general/index.html

The Effects of Therapeutic Massage on HIV and AIDS Patients

Jacob Gnanakkan. Massage Today September, 2005, Vol. 05, Issue 09

The Benefits of Massage Therapy for People Living with HIV/AIDS

Elliot Greene. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Spring 1997, 3(1): 97-98. doi:10.1089/acm.1997.3.97.

Boosting Immunity Against HIV Massage Therapy Offers Hope

Shirley Vanderbilt. Massage & Bodywork magazine, August/September 2005.

Antiretroviral agents—how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS Coovadia H. New England Journal Medicine.

Hall HI, Green TA, Wolitski RJ, et al. Estimated future HIV prevalence, incidence, and potential infections averted in the United States: a multiple scenario analysis.

Crow MK (2012). Systemic lupus erythematosus. In L Goldman, A Schafer, eds., Goldman’s Cecil Medicine, 24th ed., pp. 1697–1705. Philadelphia: Saunders.

Hahn BH (2012). Systemic lupus erythematosus. In DL Longo et al., eds., Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine, 18th ed., vol. 2, pp. 2724–2735. New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.

LESSON 8: Conditions related to Sports Injuries

Kirkland EB, Adams BB. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and athletes. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 59(3), 494–502 (2008).

Wohlrab J, Rohrbach D, Marsch WC. Keratolysis sulcata (pitted keratlysis): clinical symptoms with different histological correlates. Br. J. Dermatol. 143, 1348–1349 (2000).

Tlougan BE, Mancini AJ, Mandell JA, Cohen DE, Sanchez MR. Skin conditions in figure skaters, ice-hockey players and speed skaters: part I – mechanical dermatoses. Sports Med. Sep 1 2011;41(9):709-19.

Rower’s rump. Tomecki KJ, Mikesell JFJ Am Acad Dermatol. 1987 Apr;16(4):890-1.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3571560

McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

Cardiac arrhythmias in the athlete. MS, Homoud MK, Wang PJ, Estes NA 3rd.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11174912

Maron and Mitchell, 1994; Committee on Sports Medicine and Fitness, 1997

Van Camp SP, Bloor CM, Mueller FO, Cantu RC, Olson HG (1995). “Nontraumatic sports death in high school and college athletes”. Med Sci Sports Exerc 27 (5): 641–7. PMID 7674867.

Pluim BM, Zwinderman AH, van der Laarse A, et al: The athlete’s

heart. A meta-analysis of cardiac structure and function.

Circulation 101:336–344, 2001

Ferreira M, Santos-Silva PR, de Abreu LC, Valenti VE, Crispim V, Imaizumi C, Filho CF, Murad N, Meneghini A, Riera AR, de Carvalho TD, Vanderlei LC, Valenti EE, Cisternas JR, Moura Filho OF, Ferreira C (Aug 3, 2010). “Sudden cardiac death athletes: a systematic review”. Sports Med Arthrosc Rehabil Ther Technol 2:19. doi:10.1186/1758-2555-2-19. PMC 2923123. PMID 20682064.

Woolston, Chris. “Ills & Conditions – Athletic Heart Syndrome”. CVS Caremark Health Information. 17 January 2007. http://healthresources.caremark.com/topic/ahs

Physical and psychosocial risk factors for lateral epicondylitis: a population based case-referent study

J P Haahr, J H Andersen Occup Environ Med 2003;60:322-329 doi:10.1136/oem.60.5.322

The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints. Am J Sports Med. 1982 Jul-Aug;10(4):201-5.

Mubarak SJ, Gould RN, Lee YF, Schmidt DA, Hargens AR.

Galbraith, M., & Lavallee, M. (2009). Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options. 2(3):127–133.

Craig, D. I. (2008). “Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Evidence-Based Prevention”. Journal of Athletic Training 43(3), 316–318.

Treatment of Iliopsoas Syndrome with a Hip Rotation Strengthening Program: A Retrospective Case Series C. A. M. Johnston, BScH, MD David M. Lindsay, BHMS, BPhty, MSc J. P. Wiley, MPE, MD

Fairclough J, Hayashi K, Toumi H, et al. The functional anatomy of the iliotibial band during flexion and extension of the knee: implications for understanding iliotibial band syndrome. J Anat, March 2006;208(3):309-16.

The effects of massage on delayed onset muscle soreness J E Hilbert, G A Sforzo, T Swensen Br J Sports Med 2003;37:72–75

Rex Elliott, BSc (Hons), Brendan Burkett, PhD Massage therapy as an effective treatment for carpal tunnel syndrome, Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies Volume 17, Issue 3 , Pages 332-338, July 2013

Hershman EB. Injuries to the brachial plexus. In: Torg JS. Athletic injuries to the head, neck, and face. 2d ed. St. Louis: Mosby, 1991:345–50.

Levitz CL, Reilly PJ, Torg JS. The pathomechanics of chronic, recurrent cervical nerve root neurapraxia. The chronic burner syndrome. Am J Sports Med. 1997;25:73–6.

Sallis RE, Jones K, Knopp W. Burners: offensive strategy for an underreported injury. Physician Sportsmed. 1992;20:47–55.

Anderson, M.K., Hall, S.J., & Martin, M. (2005). Foundations of Athletic Training; Prevention, Assessment, and Management. (3rd Ed.). Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, PA. – See more at: http://www.sportsmd.com/Articles/id/51.aspx#sthash.tmZTDGEE.dpuf

LESSON 9: Conditions common to Elderly Clients

American Hospital Association; First Consulting Group. When I’m 64: How boomers will change health care. Chicago: American Hospital Association; 2007. 23 p.

According to the National Safety Council, which is a real thing and not just something I made up. http://www.nsc.org

Polling conducted jointly for Age UK and the young people’s charity YouthNet

http://www.newstimes.com/local/article/Should-we-be-scared-of-senior-drivers-367848.php

Carrie A. Werner (2010). “The Older Population: 2010”. 2010 Census Briefs. U.S. Census Bureau.

Taylor, Albert W. (2008). Physiology of Exercise and Healthy Aging. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5838-4.

“Population”. 2008 Older Americans : Key indicators of Well-Being. 2008.

Carrie A. Werner (2010). “The Older Population: 2010” (PDF). 2010 Census Briefs. U.S. Census Bureau. C2010BR-09.

Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). “Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations”. Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology 1 (1, Article 5). doi:10.2202/1941-6008.1011.

Silverman LK., Phillips. “Homogeneity of effect sizes for sex across spatial tests and cultures: implications for hormonal theories.”. 1996;31:90–94. Brain Cogn.

Carrie A. Werner (2010). “The Older Population: 2010”. 2010 Census Briefs. U.S. Census Bureau. C2010BR-09.

Taylor, Albert W. (2008). Physiology of Exercise and Healthy Aging. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-0-7360-5838-4.

Schneider, E. L. (1992). “Biological theories of aging.” Generations, 16(4), 7.

de Grey, Aubrey (January 8, 2003). “An engineer’s approach to the development of real anti-aging medicine”. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2003 (1): VP1. doi:10.1126/sageke.2003.1.vp1. PMID 12844502.

Hekimi S, Lapointe J, Wen Y. Taking a “good” look at free radicals in the aging process. Trends In Cell Biology. 2011;21(10):569-76.

Harman, D (1956). “Aging: a theory based on free radical and radiation chemistry”. Journal of Gerontology 11 (3): 298–300. PMID 13332224.

Pérez VI, Bokov A, Remmen HV, Mele J, Ran Q, Ikeno Y, et al. Is the oxidative stress theory of aging dead? Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – General Subjects. 2009;1790(10):1005-14.

C. Richter, JW Park, BN Ames “Normal oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA is extensive” “PNAS”, 1988.

Sawada M, Carlson JC. Changes in superoxide radical and lipid peroxide formation in the brain, heart and liver during the lifetime of the rat. Mechanisms Of Ageing And Development. 1987;41(1-2):125-37.

Hamilton CA, Brosnan MJ, McIntyre M, Graham D, Dominiczak AF. Superoxide excess in hypertension and aging: a common cause of endothelial dysfunction. Hypertension. 2001;37(2 Part 2):529-34.

Donato AJ, Eskurza I, Silver AE, Levy AS, Pierce GL, Gates PE, et al. Direct evidence of endothelial oxidative stress with aging in humans: relation to impaired endothelium-dependent dilation and upregulation of nuclear factor-kappaB. Circulation Research. 2007;100(11):1659-66.

Failla, G (30). “The aging process and cancerogenesis”. Ann N Y Acad Sci 71 (6): 1124–1140. PMID 13585876. Retrieved 7 May 2013.

Szilard, Leo (January 1959). “On the nature of the aging process”. Proc Natl Acad Sci 45 (1): 30–45. PMID 16590351. Retrieved 7 May 2013.

Freitas, AA; de Magalhaes, JP (Jul-Oct 2011). “A review and appraisal of the DNA damage theory of ageing”. Mutat Res 728 ((1-2)): 12–22. PMID 21600302. Retrieved 7 May 2013.

Phillipson, C.; Baars, J. (2007). “Ch. 4: Social theory and social ageing”. Ageing in Society (3rd ed.). SAGE. pp. 68–84. ISBN 978-1-4129-0020-1.

VickyRN. (August 2, ’09). Theories of Aging (Part 3) – Sociological Theories. Retrieved Friday, April 20, 2012, from http://allnurses-breakroom.com/showthread.php?t=412760

Blalock, H.M. (1982). Conceptualization and measurement in the social sciences. Beverly Hills: Sage. ISBN 0803918046

Kaplan, Abraham (1964). The Conduct of Inquiry: Methodology for Behavioral Science. Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7658-0448-8.

Rowe, J.W.; Kahn, R.L. (1998). Successful aging. New York: Pantheon. ISBN 0375400451.

Webster, N. (2003). Webster’s new American dictionary. New York: HarperCollins.

Dannefer D (November 2003). “Cumulative advantage/disadvantage and the life course: cross-fertilizing age and social science theory”. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci 58 (6): S327–37. PMID 14614120.

Cohan ME, Pikna JK, Duecy E. Urinary incontinence. In: Duthie EH, Katz PR, Malone ML, eds. Practice of Geriatrics. 4th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2007:chap 16

According to the National Institute on Deafness and other Communication Disorders (NIDCD)

According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (2007),

Ertel KA, Glymour MM, Berkman LF. (2008). Effects of social integration on preserving memory function in a nationally representative U.S. elderly population. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 1215–20.

Blazer DG. (2003). Depression in late life: Review and commentary. Journal of Gerontology: Biological Sciences, Medical Sciences, 58, 249–265.

Geddes, John; Gelder, Michael G.; Mayou, Richard (2005). Psychiatry. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. p. 141. ISBN 0-19-852863-9. OCLC 56348037.

Calleo J, Stanley M (2008). “Anxiety Disorders in Later Life Differentiated Diagnosis and Treatment Strategies”. Psychiatric Times 25 (8).

LESSON 10: Commonly Encountered Condition: Sciatica

Patrick, C.A.J. Vroomen, Marc C.T.F.M. de Krom, Jan T. Wilmink, D.M. Arnold, J. Kester, and Andre Knottnerus. “Lack of Effectiveness of Bed Rest for Sciatica.” N Engl J Med 340 (1999): 418- 423.

Massage therapy helps to increase range of motion, decrease pain and assist in healing a client with low back pain and sciatica symptoms

Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies Volume 12, Issue 3 , Pages 281-289, July 2008

Identification of a Novel Common Genetic Risk Factor for Lumbar Disk Disease, Petteri Paassilta, MD, PhD; Jaana Lohiniva; Harald H. H. Göring, PhD; Merja Perälä, PhD; S. Susanna Räinä; Jaro Karppinen, MD; Markku Hakala, MD, PhD; Tiina Palm, MD; Heikki Kröger, MD, PhD; Ilkka Kaitila, MD, PhD; Heikki Vanharanta, MD, PhD; Jürg Ott, PhD; Leena Ala-Kokko, MD, PhD

Jegede KA, Ndu A, Grauer JN. Contemporary management of symptomatic lumbar disc herniations. Orthop Clin North Am. 2010;41:217-224.

Presentation, Imaging and Treatment of Common Musculoskeletal Conditions: MRI-Arthroscopy Correlation

Contributors Mark D. Miller, Timothy G. Sanders Elsevier Health Sciences, 2011

ISBN 1437709141, 9781437709148

National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

Questions and Answers about Spinal Stenosis http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health_Info/Spinal_Stenosis/def

ault.asp#spine_c

Spiegel DA, Dormans JP. Spondylolysis and Spondylolisthesis.In: Kliegman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 671.6.

Bone Disorders of the Spine

David P. Brown, D.O., Eric D. Freeman, D.O., Sara Cuccurullo, M.D., and Ted L. Freeman, D.O.

Chiropractic Management of Sports and Recreational Injuries

R. C. Schafer, Second Edition ~ Wiliams & Wilkins

LESSON 11: Commonly Encountered Condition: TMJD

Beck, Mark F Theory and Practice of Therapeutic Massage. Milady 4 edition (2007)

Werner, Ruth A Massage Therapist’s Guide to Pathology Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 4 edition (2008)

Wright, John Common Disorders of the Temporomandibular Joint Article (1986)

Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine: Temporomandibular joint disorders Thomson Gale (2004)

Shen, Peijian Massage for Pain Relief Random House (1996)

Lindsay Phipps Eisensmith, L.M.T., C.E.S. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies (2007) 11, 223–230 Massage therapy decreases frequency and intensity of symptoms related to temporomandibular joint syndrome in one case study

Anatomy of the temporomandibular joint, Seminars in Ultrasound CT MR. 2007 Jun;28(3):170-83. Alomar X, Medrano J, Cabratosa J, Clavero JA, Lorente M, Serra I, Monill JM, Salvador A.

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research

https://www.nidcr.nih.gov/DataStatistics/FindDataByTopic/FacialPain/

Manual of Temporomandibular Disorders Edward F. Wright John Wiley & Sons, 2011 ISBN 1119949556, 9781119949558

Immunohistochemical and biomolecular identification of 5-HT_{7} receptor in rat vestibular nuclei, Journal of Vestibular Research

Roza Khalmuratova, Young-Sool Hah, Seong-Ki Ahn, Sea-Yuong Jeon, Jin-Pyeong Kim, Carey D. Balaban

Genetic Factors Account for Half of the Phenotypic Variance in Liability to Sleep-Related Bruxism in Young Adults: A Nationwide Finnish Twin Cohort Study. Twin Research and Human Genetics, 15, pp. 714­–719. DOI: 10.1017/thg.2012.54

Rintakoski, Katariina; Hublin, Christer; Lobbezoo, Frank; Rose, Richard J.; and Kaprio, Jaakko (2012).

LESSON 12: Commonly Encountered Condition: Sleep Disorders

Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research, Colten HR, Altevogt BM (eds). Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.

National Commission of Sleep Disorders Research. Wake Up America: A National Sleep Alert: Report of the National Commission on Sleep Disorders Research. Washington, DC: The National Commission; 1993, 1994.

Wittmann V, Rodenstein DO. Health care costs and the sleep apnea syndrome. Sleep Med Rev. 2004;8(4):269-279.

Webb WB. The cost of sleep-related accidents: a reanalysis. Sleep. 1995;18(4):276-280.

Leger D. The cost of sleepiness: a response to comments. Sleep. 1995;18(4):281-284.

Kessler RC, Berglund PA, Coulouvrat C, et al. Insomnia and the performance of US workers: results from the America Insomnia Survey. Sleep. 2011;34(9):1161-1171.

Institute of Medicine Committee on Sleep Medicine and Research, Colten HR, Altevogt BM (eds). Sleep Disorders and Sleep Deprivation: An Unmet Public Health Problem. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2006.

Macmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd. (1981), p. 936. Retrieved 1 October 2009.

Bingham, Roger; Terrence Sejnowski, Jerry Siegel, Mark Eric Dyken, Charles Czeisler, Paul Shaw, Ralph Greenspan, Satchin Panda, Philip Low, Robert Stickgold, Sara Mednick,

Allan Pack, Luis de Lecea, David Dinges, Dan Kripke, Giulio Tononi (February 2007). “Waking Up To Sleep” (Several conference videos). The Science Network. Retrieved 25 January 2008.

National Sleep Foundation. Sleep-Wake Cycle: Its Physiology and Impact on Health. Available at http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/SleepWakeCycle.pdf. Last accessed November 30, 2012.

More daylight can mean less sleep for many Alaskans March 17, 2010|by Lori Tipton http://articles.ktuu.com/2010-03-17/circadian-rhythm_24128484

Nasa to test space-sleep colour-changing lights http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-20753888

National Sleep Foundation. Sleep-Wake Cycle: Its Physiology and Impact on Health. Available at http://www.sleepfoundation.org/sites/default/files/SleepWakeCycle.pdf

Huang ZL, Urade Y, Hayaishi O. The role of adenosine in the regulation of sleep. Curr Top Med Chem. 2011;11(8):1047-1057.

Pfeiffer, Eric (19 June 2012). “Teen with ‘Sleeping Beauty Syndrome’ wakes up after two months”. Yahoo! News. Retrieved 19 September 2012.

“Sexsomnia”. Psychology Today. 2009 and Salkeld, Luke (7 August 2007).

“Sexomniac” RAF Man Sobs as he is Cleared of Raping a Girl in his Sleep”. Daily Mail (London) http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-473525/Sexsomniac-RAF-man-sobs-cleared-raping-girl-sleep.html .

Distribution of hallucinations in the population, A. Y. Tien, Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 1991, Volume 26, Issue 6, pp 287-292

Effect of therapeutic massage on insomnia and climacteric symptoms in postmenopausal women. Oliveira DS, Hachul H, Goto V, Tufik S, Bittencourt LR.Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Brazil. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22017318

“Research: Massage Eases Lower Back Pain, Increases Range of Motion,” Massage Magazine, January/February 2002.

Newton KM, Buist DSM, Keenan NL, Anderson LA, LaCroix AZ. Use of alternative therapies for menopause symptoms: Results of a population-based survey. Obstet Gynecol. 2002;100:18–25. 10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02005-7 [PubMed]

Schiff A. Literature review of back massage and similar techniques to promote sleep in elderly people. Pflege. 2006;19:163–73. 10.1024/1012-5302.19.3.163 [PubMed]

Daley A, MacArthur C, McManis R, Stokes-Lampard H, Wilson S, Roalfe A, et al. Factors associated with the use of complementary medicine and non-pharmacological intervention in symptomatic menopausal women. Climacteric. 2006;9:336–46. 10.1080/13697130600864074 [PubMed]

Field T, Reif MH, Diego M, Schangerg S, Kuhn C. Cortisol decreases and serotonin and dopamine increase following massage therapy. Int J Neurosci. 2005;115:1397–413. 10.1080/00207450590956459 [PubMed]

Zhou YF, Wei YL, Zhang PL, Gao S, Ning GL, Zhang ZQ, et al. Multi-central controlled study on three-part massage therapy for treatment of insomnia of deficiency of both the heart and spleen. Zhongguo Zhen Jiu. 2006;26:385–8. [PubMed]

LESSON 13: Commonly Encountered Condition: Fibromyalgia

Sleep disorders and fibromyalgia. Roizenblatt S, Neto NS, Tufik S. Departamento de Psicobiologia, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Avenida Angélica 1996, Andar 1, São Paulo 01228-200, Brazil.

High prevalence of restless legs syndrome among patients with fibromyalgia: a controlled cross-sectional study. Viola-Saltzman M, Watson NF, Bogart A, Goldberg J, Buchwald D.

Department of Neurology, Loyola University Medical Center Maywood, IL, USA.

Is inflammation a mitochondrial dysfunction-dependent event in fibromyalgia? Cordero MD, Díaz-Parrado E, Carrión AM, Alfonsi S, Sánchez-Alcazar JA, Bullón P, Battino M, de Miguel M.Dpto. Citología e Histología Normal y Patológica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Sevilla, Spain.

The prevalence of rheumatologic disorders in patients with chest pain and angiographically normal coronary arteries.Mukerji B, Mukerji V, Alpert MA, Selukar R.University of South Alabama, Mobile, USA.

The prevalence of fibromyalgia and its relation with headache characteristics in episodic migraine. Küçük?en S, Genç E, Y?lmaz H, Sall? A, Gezer IA, Karahan AY, Salba? E, Cingöz HT, Nas O, U?urlu H. Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Meram Medical School, Necmettin Erbakan University, Yunus Emre Mh, 42080, Konya, Turkey,

Is there a relationship between fibromyalgia and rhinitis?

Frieri M, Argyriou A. Department of Medicine, Nassau University Medical Center, East Meadow, New York, NY 11554, USA.

Methodological approach to depressive symptoms in fibromyalgia patients.

Veltri A, Scarpellini P, Piccinni A, Conversano C, Giacomelli C, Bombardieri S, Bazzichi L, Dell’Osso L. Dipartimento di Medicina Clinica e Sperimentale, University of Pisa, Italy

The relation between vitamin D deficiency and fibromyalgia syndrome in women. Matthana MH. Clinical Research Center, Sultan Bin Abdulaziz Humanitarian City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Fibromyalgia dyscognition: concepts and issues. Ambrose KR, Gracely RH, Glass JM. University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.

Functional impairment in chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, and multiple chemical sensitivity. Lavergne MR, Cole DC, Kerr K, Marshall LM. Women’s College Hospital, Family and Community Medicine, Toronto, ON

Fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, tender points and trigger points: splitting or lumping?

Bennett RM, Goldenberg DL.

Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction in fibromyalgic patients. Fraga BP, Santos EB, Farias Neto JP, Macieira JC, Quintans LJ Jr, Onofre AS, De Santana JM, Martins-Filho PR, Bonjardim LR. Health Science, Federal University of Sergipe, Aracaju, Sergipe, Brazil.

Objective Measures of Disordered Sleep in Fibromyalgia Ronald D. Chervin, Mihaela Teodorescu, Ramesh Kushwaha, Andrea M. Deline, Christine B. Brucksch, Christine Ribbens-Grimm, Deborah L. Ruzicka, Phyllis K. Stein, Daniel J. Clauw, and Leslie J. Crofford

A new treatment modality for fibromyalgia syndrome: hyperbaric oxygen therapy.

Yildiz S, Kiralp MZ, Akin A, Keskin I, Ay H, Dursun H, Cimsit M. GATA Haydarpa?a Military Hospital, Istanbul, Turkey.

Cannabis use in patients with fibromyalgia: effect on symptoms relief and health-related quality of life. Fiz J, Durán M, Capellà D, Carbonell J, Farré M.Human Pharmacology and Neurosciences Unit, Institut de Recerca Hospital del Mar-IMIM, Parc de Salut Mar, Barcelona, Spain

Association of herbal cannabis use with negative psychosocial parameters in patients with fibromyalgia. Ste-Marie PA, Fitzcharles MA, Gamsa A, Ware MA, Shir Y. McGill University Health Centre, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Sex hormones and pain in regularly menstruating women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Okifuji A, Turk DC. Pain Research Center, Department of Anesthesiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.

Effectiveness of high-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation at tender points as adjuvant therapy for patients with fibromyalgia. Carbonario F, Matsutani LA, Yuan SL, Marques AP. Department of Speech Therapy, Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Faculty of Medicine of the University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil

Massage therapy for fibromyalgia symptoms. Kalichman L. Department of Physical Therapy, Recanati School for Community Health Professions, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.

Massage therapy and transcutaneous electrical stimulation effects on fibromyalgia. Sunshine, W., Field, T. Schanberg, S., Quintino, O., Kilmer, T., Fierro, K., Burman, I., Hashimoto, M., McBride, C., & Henteleff, T. (1996). Journal of Clinical Rheumatology, 2, 18-22.

Traditional Chinese Medicine for treatment of fibromyalgia: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Cao H, Liu J, Lewith GT. Centre for Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.